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’†‹‰—ûK–â‘č‚Ė“Yí@‚T‚P|‚U‚O

 

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’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚UuƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚Å‚Ėî•ņŒŸõ•û–@v(29July 03) (4 Aug 07) (23 July 08)

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(15 Feb 12)

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚U‚OuŽq‹Ÿ‚ĖƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Ė\ŋv(29 July 03) (21 Aug 07) (22 Nov 08) (3 Nov 10)

(16 Feb 12)

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚Pu“ú–{‚Ė­ŽĄ‰üŠvv

 

“ú–{‚Ė­ŽĄ§“x‚́A‚P‚X‚V‚OA‚W‚O”N‘ã‚Ü‚Å‹@”\‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚―B‚ЂƂ‚ɂ͗DG‚ČŠŊ—ŧ‚ŠŒoÏ”­“W‚ĖŽå“ąŒ ‚ðˆŽ‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚―‚Đ‚į‚ūB‚ū‚Š­ŽĄ‚ÍŽž‘ã‚Ė•Ï‰ŧ‚ɂ‚Ē‚Ä‚Ē‚Ŋ‚Č‚Đ‚Á‚―B“ú–{‚Ė“sŽs‰ŧ‚Í‹}‘Ž‚ɐi‚ņ‚ū‚ŠA“sŽsZ–Ŋ‚͍‘‰ï‚ŐlŒû‚ÉŒĐ‡‚Ī‘ã•\‚ðŽ‚Ä‚ļA”_‘šog‹cˆõ‚Š—DˆĘ‚É—§‚‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Č‚Á‚―B

 

‚ą‚ę‚Š‘°‹cˆõ‚ĖŒ`Ž‚ð•‚ŊA‹Md‚ȍāŒđ‚ð•s“KØ‚ÉŽg‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚É‚Č‚Á‚―B•Ä‘‚Š‚P‚O”N‚ē‚Æ‚É‘I‹“‹æŒĐ’ž‚ĩ‚ðs‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ƑΏƓI‚Å‚ ‚éB‚P‚X‚X‚S”N‚Ė‘I‹“§“x‰üŠv‚Å‘°‹cˆõ‚â”h”ī‚Ė—͂͏­‚ĩ‚ŧ‚Š‚ę‚―‚ŠA‹cˆõ‚ĖĒP‚͕č‘‚æ‚č’˜‚ĩ‚­AV‹KŽQ“ü‚Í“ï‚ĩ‚ĒB­ŽĄ‰üŠv‚Ė“đ‚Ė‚č‚Í‚Ü‚ūŒĐ‚Ķ‚Č‚ĒB

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Uimxtomi, 30 November 11j

 

"Political Reform in Japan" 

 

Political system in Japan had been functioning well up until 1970fs or 1980fs. One reason was that competent bureaucrats had been playing a leading role in expediting economic development.  Nevertheless, the politics were not able to respond changing social needs. Despite the rapid progress of urbanization in Japan, urban residents were not represented by fair number of lawmakers proportional to their voting rights, allowing lawmakers from agricultural districts to begin to dominate. Such electoral inequality gave birth to lawmakers called gZokugiinh who championed the causes of special interest groups, resulting in sub-optimal use of scarce resources. This contrasts markedly with the election system in the US where constituencies are to be redrawn every 10 years. The electoral reform in 1994 succeeded somewhat in counteracting the dominance of the Zokugiin and factions. Yet, we see larger number of hereditary politicians in Japan than in the US and this makes new entry into the world of politics even more difficult. We still have a very long way to go before we achieve political reform.

 

“Yí

 

"Political Reform in Japan" 

 

The Ppolitical system in Japan had been functioning well up until the 1970fs or 1980fs1. One reason was that competent bureaucrats had been playing a leading role in expediting economic development.  Nevertheless However, even during this period, the politicspolitical leaders2 were not able to quickly respond to changing social needs. Despite the rapid progress of urbanization in Japan, urban residents were not represented by a fair number of lawmakers proportional to their voting rights, allowing lawmakers from agricultural districts to begin to dominate the law making process. Such electoral inequality gave birth to lawmakers called gZokugiinh who championed the causes of special interest groups, resulting in a sub-optimal use of scarce resources.

 

This contrasts markedly with the election system in the US where constituencies are to be redrawn every 10 years to keep a fair representation of population. The Japanfs3 electoral reform in 1994 succeeded somewhathow in counteracting the dominance of the Zokugiin and political factions. Yet, we see a larger number of hereditary4 politicians who have taken over their parentfs constituencies in Japan than in the US. and tThis makes a new entry into the world of politics even more difficult in Japan than in the US. We still have a very long way to go before we can achieve true political reform.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       u‚P‚X‚V‚OA‚W‚O”N‘ã‚Ü‚Å‹@”\‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚―v‚Æ‚ ‚čAu‚P‚X‚V‚O‘ã‚ÍŠm‚Đ‚É‹@”\‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ļ‚čA‚P‚X‚W‚O”N‘ã‚ā‚Ü‚ ‚Ü‚ ‹@”\‚ĩ‚Ä‚―v‚Æ‚Ē‚Á‚―•ĩˆÍ‹C‚Ė•\Œŧ‚Đ‚ā‚ĩ‚ę‚Ü‚đ‚ņ‚ŠA‰p•ķ‚Í–ūŠm‚É‚P‚X‚V‚O”N‘ã‚Ü‚Å‚Đ‚P‚X‚W‚O”N‘ã‚Ü‚Å‚Ė‚Į‚ŋ‚į‚Đˆę‚‚ɂ·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       Bureaucrats‚Æ‚Ė‘Ήž‚Åpolitical leaders‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       ‘O‚Ė•ķ‚Š•Ä‘‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Í“ú–{‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚ðŒū‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Æ‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

4.       Hereditary politicians‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ƐĒP§“x‚É‚æ‚鐭ŽĄ‰ÆA‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Æ‚ę‚Ü‚·‚Đ‚įA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É’n”Õ‚ðŽó‚ŊŒp‚Ē‚ū­ŽĄ‰Æ‚Ɛā–ū‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Political Reform in Japan" 

 

The political system in Japan had been functioning well up until the 1980fs. One reason was that competent bureaucrats had been playing a leading role in expediting economic development. However, even during this period, political leaders were not able to quickly respond to changing social needs. Despite the rapid progress of urbanization in Japan, urban residents were not represented by a fair number of lawmakers proportional to their voting rights, allowing lawmakers from agricultural districts to begin to dominate the law making process. Such electoral inequality gave birth to lawmakers called gZokugiinh who championed the causes of special interest groups, resulting in a sub-optimal use of scarce resources.

 

This contrasts markedly with the election system in the US where constituencies are to be redrawn every 10 years to keep a fair representation of population. Japanfs electoral reform in 1994 succeeded somehow in counteracting the dominance of the Zokugiin and political factions. Yet, we see a larger number of politicians who have taken over their parentfs constituencies in Japan than in the US. This makes a new entry into the world of politics  more difficult in Japan than in the US. We still have a very long way to go before we can achieve true political reform.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Ti‚ ‚·‚ЁA19 January 10j

 

"Political Reform in Japan"

 

The Japanese political system had worked well throughout the 1970s and 1980s. One of the reasons that it was that competent bureaucrats took the initiative using policies to promote Japan's economic growth. However, the political system couldn't catch up to the changes of the rapid urban growth, and the city residents couldn't have delegates of the country, who were proportional to the number of voters in the Diet. Therefore the lawmakers who were elected from village officials became predominant after all, and they helped to form a group of special legislators who had influence an entire congregation and used the nation's financial resources inefficiently. This fact was that contrasted with the U.S. which revised the congressional districts every 10 years. In 1994, the power of political factions and the group of special legislators really didn't affect the management of the financial resources, however, there are a large number of second-generation politicians into the Diet in Japan than the one in the U.S. and new entries into the politics in Japan are difficult. Japan's political reform is still far from over.

 

“Yí

 

"Political Reform in Japan"

 

The Japanese political system had worked well throughout the 1970s and 1980s. One of the reasons that it had worked was that competent bureaucrats took the initiative in developing and implementing using policies1 to promote Japan's economic growth. However, the political system couldn't catch up with to the changes induced by of the rapid urban growth, and the city residents couldn't have the number of delegates of the country, who were proportional to the number of urban voters in the Diet. Therefore, the lawmakers who were elected from the rural areas village officials became predominant after all in the Diet, and tThey2 helped to formed a group of special interest groups legislators who had strong influence on the national budget in favor of their rural constituencies3 an entire congregation and used the nation's financial resources inefficiently.

 

This fact was that in sharp contrast to contrasted with the U.S. which revised the congressional districts every 10 years. In Japan, the 1994 electoral reform rectified the unbalance to a degree but , the power of political factions and the group of special interest groups remained legislators really and the reform didn't affect the management of the financial resources., however, Tthere are proportionately more4 a large number of second-generation politicians into the Diet in Japan than the one in the U.S. and new entries into the politics in Japan are difficult. Japan's political reform is still far from over.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŠT—Š‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚í‚Đ‚į‚Č‚Ē‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ­ô‚ĖÝ’č‚ÆŽ{s‚ÉŽå“ąŒ ‚ð”­Šö‚ĩ‚―A‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       •ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Š•ĄŽG‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ŧ‚―‚įAV‚ĩ‚Ē•ķ‚É‚·‚é‚Æ“ā—e‚ĖŪ—‚Š‚â‚ģ‚ĩ‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       ‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č•â‘Ŧā–ū‚ð“ü‚ę‚é‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

4.       â‘ΐ”‚Š‘―‚Ē‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­‚āAĒP‹cˆõ‚Ėƒp[ƒZƒ“ƒg‚Š‚‚ĒA‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Political Reform in Japan"

 

The Japanese political system had worked well throughout the 1970s and 1980s. One of the reasons that it had worked was that competent bureaucrats took the initiative in developing and implementing policies to promote Japan's economic growth. However, the political system couldn't catch up with the changes induced by the rapid urban growth, and the city residents couldn't have the number of delegates who were proportional to the number of urban voters in the Diet. Therefore, the lawmakers who were elected from the rural areas  became predominant in the Diet. They formed special interest groups who had strong influence on the national budget in favor of their rural constituencies and used the nation's financial resources inefficiently.

 

This was in sharp contrast to the U.S. which revised the congressional districts every 10 years. In Japan, the 1994 electoral reform rectified the unbalance to a degree but the power of political factions and special interest groups remained and the reform didn't affect the management of financial resources. There are proportionately more second-generation politicians in Japan than in the U.S. and new entries into the politics in Japan are difficult. Japan's political reform is still far from over.

 

 

 

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA21 October 08j

 

gPolitical Reform In Japanh

 

The Japanese Political System had functioned well until the 1970fs and the 1980fs. One of the reasons that it had functioned well is that competent government officials took the initiative for the economic development.  But the Japanese politics could not keep up with the change of the times. Urbanization has rapidly advanced in Japan but urban residents could not have their own delegates in proportion to their population. So law makers from rural areas have over-represented in the Diet.

 

The distortion in the Diet caused forming a group of law makers who work on behalf of special interests and benefit from their efforts. It ended up spending the valuable budget improperly. The Japanese election system is really a mirror image of the United Statesf one in which electoral districts are revised every ten years. Even though the law makers with vested interests and political factions in Japanese Diet have slightly declined in strength through the 1994 Electoral Reform, we have more hereditary law makers and new entries to the politics are more difficult than in the United States. Nobody can even find a way to the Political Reform.

 

“Yí

 

gPolitical Reform In Japanh

 

The Japanese Ppolitical Ssystem1 had functioned2 well until the 1970fs and the 1980fs. One of the reasons that it had functioned well is was that competent government officials took the initiative for the economic development3. But the Japanese politics political system could not keep up with the change of the times. Urbanization has rapidly advanced in Japan but urban residents could not have their own delegates in proportion to their population. So, now law makers from rural areas have over-represented the rural population4 in the Diet.

 

The distortion in the Diet caused helps to forming a group of law makers who work on behalf of special interests and benefit from their efforts5 that in turn leads to. It ended up spending the valuable budget improperly. The Japanese election system is slow in adjusting electoral districts and is in sharp contrast to6 that of the United States really a mirror image of the United Statesf one in which electoral districts are revised every ten years. Even though the law makers with vested interests and of political factions in Japanese the Diet have slightly declined in strength through the 1994 Electoral Reform, we have proportionately more hereditary law makers than the United States and new entries to the politics face are tougher competition7 more difficult than those in the United States. Political reform in Japan has a long way to go yet Nobody can even find a way to the Political Reform.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‚Ų‚Ú‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚í‚Đ‚č“ï‚Ē‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Š”‰ÓŠ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       “Á‚É‹­’ē‚·‚é•K—v‚Í‚Č‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚Ī‚Ė‚ŏŽ•ķŽš‚Å‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ‰ß‹Ž‚Ė‚ ‚鎞“_‚Ü‚ÅŒp‘ą‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚―‚ą‚Æ‚Č‚Ė‚Åhad functioned‚Å‚·‚ˁB

 

3.       the economic development‚Í‚ą‚Ė•ķ–Ž‚Å‚Í‚P‚X‚W‚O”N‘ã‚Ü‚Å‚Ė“ú–{‚ĖŒoÏ”­“WA‚Æ‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠAŒoÏ”­“Wˆę”ʁAeconomic development‚Å‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

4.       Those law makers from rural areas are over-represented in the Diet.  ‚Ü‚―‚Í“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B“Yí‚Ė‚Ų‚Ī‚Š“ā—e‚Š‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

5.       ŽĐ•Š‚Ėę–åˆČŠO‚Ė•Š–ė‚ĖV‚ĩ‚ĒŒū—t‚ð‰pŽšV•·‚Å‚Į‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Đ‹C‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·‚ˁB‚―‚Ü‚―‚Ü’m‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Æ‚Ŧ‚Í‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ŠA’m‚į‚Č‚Ē‚Æ‚Ŧ‚͉pŽŦ˜Yon the Web (ƒAƒ‹ƒN‚Ėƒz[ƒ€ƒy[ƒW@http://www.alc.co.jp/@‚Ėķã‚ɏŽ‚ģ‚ĒŒŸõ‘‹‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·) ‚Š•Ö—˜‚Å‚·B‚ą‚ą‚Ńqƒ“ƒg‚ð“ū‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ü‚·B‚ŧ‚ę‚Å‚ā‚í‚Đ‚į‚Č‚Ē‚Æ‚Ŧ‚Í“ā—e‚ðŽæ‚Á‚ĉpŒę‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚ę‚΂æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB‘°‹cˆõ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č’·‚Ēā–ū‚Š•K—v‚Š‚ā‚Ė‚́A“ņ‰ņ–Ú‚Đ‚į‚́u‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąv‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É’Z‚­•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚ЁA‚Ü‚―‚Íthose law makers‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č•\Œŧ‚Å‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

6.       a mirror image‚Í‚Ü‚Á‚―‚­“Ŋ‚ķ‚ā‚Ė‚Ė•\Œŧ‚Šˆę”Ę“I‚Å‚·B“Ŋ‚ķ‚ū‚Šķ‰E‚Š”―‘΁A‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪˆÓ–Ą‚Ė•\Œŧ‚ā‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ę‚ðŠg‘å‰ðŽß‚ĩ‚āuŽ—‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Š“ā—e‚Í‚ŋ‚å‚Ī‚Į‹tv‚Æ‚·‚é‚É‚Í–ģ—‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

7.       ‚ą‚ą‚Í“ā—e‚ð“ņ‚‚ɕŠ‚Ŋ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·Bentries‚́u­ŠE‚É“ü‚č‚―‚Ēl’Bv‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪˆÓ–Ą‚ÅŽg‚í‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Å“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·BNew entry into politics is more difficult in Japan than in the United States.‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•\Œŧ‚ā‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‘O”ž‚Éhereditary law makers‚Šo‚Ä‚­‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ę‚É‚ ‚í‚đ“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚·‚é‚Ė‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gPolitical Reform In Japanh

 

The Japanese political system had functioned well until the 1970fs and the 1980fs. One of the reasons that it had functioned well was that competent government officials took the initiative for economic development. But the Japanese political system could not keep up with the change of the times. Urbanization has rapidly advanced in Japan but urban residents could not have their own delegates in proportion to their population. So, now law makers from rural areas over-represent the rural population in the Diet.

 

The distortion in the Diet helps to form a group of law makers who work on behalf of special interests and benefit from their efforts that in turn leads to spending the valuable budget improperly. The Japanese election system is slow in adjusting electoral districts and is in sharp contrast to that of the United States in which electoral districts are revised every ten years. Even though the law makers with vested interests and of political factions in the Diet have slightly declined in strength through the 1994 Electoral Reform, we have proportionately more hereditary law makers than the United States and new entries to  politics face tougher competition than those in the United States. Political reform in Japan has a long way to go yet.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚RiKalo, 11 June 07j

 

Political Reform in Japan

 

The political system in Japan worked well until 1980s. This was partly because competent bureaucrats had the initiative in making economic policies. This political system, however, could not adapt to subsequent changes in Japanese society. While the society became rapidly urbanized, this political system did not allow urban residents to have the appropriate number of representatives in the Diet in proportion to their population. Eventually, representatives from rural areas outnumbered those from urban areas in the Diet.

 

The disparity of those urban and rural representatives in the Diet helped form interest groups who worked on behalf of their rural areas, and perpetuate huge government subsidies for agriculture and rural development.

 

While the U. S revised its electrical districts every ten years, Japan finally worked on an electoral reform in 1994. The 1994 electoral reform managed to reduce the influence of interest groups and political factions.

 

However, there are still a large number of second-or third-generation politicians in the Diet. That number far exceeds those in the U. S congress, preventing newcomers from going into politics. The political system in Japan remains unreformed.

 

“Yí

 

Political Reform in Japan

 

The political system in Japan worked well until the1980s. This was partly because competent bureaucrats had the initiative in making economic policies. This political system, however, could not adapt to subsequent changes in Japanese society. While the society became rapidly urbanized, this the political system did not allow urban residents to have the appropriate number of representatives in the Diet in proportion to their population. Eventually, the representatives from the rural areas could influence policy making stronger than outnumbered1 those from the urban areas in the Diet.

 

The disparity of between those the urban and rural representatives in the Diet helped form interest groups who worked on behalf of their the rural areas, and perpetuated huge government subsidies for to agriculture and rural development2.

 

While the U. S revised its electrical districts every ten years, Japan did not take any actions3 until 1994 when Japan finally worked on an electoral reform in 1994. The 1994 electoral reform managed to reduce the influence of interest groups and political factions.

 

However, there are still a large number of second-or third-generation politicians in the Diet who inherit the political base from their relatives4. That The number of those hereditary representatives5 far exceeds those that in the U. S cCongress, preventing newcomers from going into politics. The political system in Japan remains unreformed6.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       •ķÍ‚Ė\Ž‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁBƒRƒƒ“ƒg‚Í“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‰ðŽß‚ɂ‚Ē‚Ä‚Š‘―‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚―BŽĐ•Š‚Å•ņ‘‚ð‘‚­‚Æ‚Ŧ‚Í“ā—e‚ɂ‚Ē‚Ä‚Í‚æ‚­’m‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠAę–å‚Ėˆá‚Ī‘žl‚Ė‘‚Ē‚―•ķÍ‚ð‰p•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ‚Ŧ‚́A“ā—e‚Ė‰ðŽß‚Š“ï‚ĩ‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·BŽ„‚͘_•ķ‚Ė‰p–ó‚ðŽč“`‚Á‚―‚ą‚Æ‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠAæ‚ļ‚Í“–l‚Đ‚į˜_•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŠT—Š‚Ėu‹`‚ð‚ĩ‚Ä‚ā‚į‚ĒAŽŸ‚ɌX‚Ė“ā—e‚ɂ‚Ē‚Ä‚Ē‚ë‚Ē‚ëŽŋ–â‚ð‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚į‰p–ó‚ði‚ß‚é‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪŽžŠÔ‚Ė‚Đ‚Đ‚éŽdŽ–‚Å‚ĩ‚―B‚ģ‚āAu”_‘šog‹cˆõ‚Š—DˆĘ‚É—§‚‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Č‚Á‚―Bv‚Í”_‘šog‹cˆõ‚Ėâ‘ΐ”‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­‚āA‰e‹ŋ—Í‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚·B”_‘š•”‚Å‚Í“sŽs•”‚ÉŠr‚Ũ‚ďZ–Ŋ‚Ė‘‚Ė­ô‚ɑ΂·‚é—v–]‚Šˆę’v‚ĩ‚â‚·‚Ēó‹ĩ‚ū‚Á‚―‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ‹ï‘Ė“I‚É‚ÍKalo‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė‚Ē‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é’Ę‚č‚É‚É”_‹Æ‚Æ“đ˜H‚Č‚Į‚ĖŒö‹ĪŽ–‹Æ‚ŠŽå‚Å‚ĩ‚―B‚ā‚Á‚ƈę”Ę“I‚É•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Č‚įAAs a result, the distribution of government budgets was skewed towards spending in the rural areas.‚Æ‚Č‚é‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       While ~@‚Æ‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁAu•Ä‘‚́`‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚―‚É‚ā‚Đ‚Đ‚í‚į‚ļvA‚Ü‚―‚́u•Ä‘‚Š`‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚éŠÔ‚Ɂv‚Æ‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B‚·‚é‚Æ“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ȏŽ•ķ‚ð“ü‚ę‚Č‚Ē‚ÆŽåß‚Ė“ā—e‚Æ‚Ī‚Ü‚­‚‚ȂŠ‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņB

 

4.       the second and third generations‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƁAĒ‘ãŒð‘ã‚ĖˆÓ–Ą‚É‚ā‚Č‚é‚Ė‚ŁA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ɐā–ū‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

5.       hereditary‚́uĒP‚Ėv‚ĖˆÓ–Ą‚Å‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Í•ķÍ‚Ė“ā—e‚Đ‚į–{“–‚ĖĒP‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Ē‚ą‚Æ‚Í‚í‚Đ‚é‚Æ‚Ļ‚ā‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

6.       Œĩ‚ĩ‚ĒŒ‹˜_‚Å‚·‚ˁB“ú–{•ķ‚Ė•\Œŧ‚Í›U‹Č‚ČŒū‚Ē•û‚Š‘―‚Ē‚Ė‚ŁA“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŽåŽ|‚ð‚Æ‚Á‚Ä‚ą‚Ė‚­‚į‚ĒŒĩ‚ĩ‚­•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Ė‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB­‚ĩ‚â‚í‚į‚°‚ę‚΁AThere is still a long way to go before real political reform is achieved in Japan.‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•\Œŧ‚ā‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Political Reform in Japan

 

The political system in Japan worked well until the1980s. This was partly because competent bureaucrats had the initiative in making economic policies. This political system, however, could not adapt to subsequent changes in Japanese society. While the society became rapidly urbanized, the political system did not allow urban residents to have the appropriate number of representatives in the Diet in proportion to their population. Eventually, the representatives from the rural areas could influence policy making stronger than those from the urban areas in the Diet.

 

The disparity between the urban and rural representatives in the Diet helped form interest groups who worked on behalf of the rural areas and perpetuated huge government subsidies to agriculture and rural development.

 

While the U. S revised its electrical districts every ten years, Japan did not take any actions until 1994 when Japan finally worked on electoral reform. The 1994 electoral reform managed to reduce the influence of interest groups and political factions.

 

However, there are still a large number of politicians in the Diet who inherit the political base from their relatives. The number of those hereditary representatives far exceeds that in the U. S Congress, preventing newcomers from going into politics. The political system in Japan remains unreformed.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA19 February 07j

 

gPolitical reform in Japanh

 

Japanese political system had functioned until 1970s or 1980s partly because highly capable bureaucrats were taking the helm of the nationfs economic development. But, Japanese political system could not catch up with the change of times. While the population in the urban areas rapidly increased, the number of representatives to the Diet from those areas remained unchanged. As the result, the number of representatives from rural areas exceeded that from urban areas.

 

This contributed to the growth of the power of Diet members who worked on behalf of special interests and benefit of the people lived in rural areas. It also brought the unfair distributions of precious financial resources. This trend is opposite to the political system in the U.S. where the constituencyfs size is revised every ten years. The reform of the election system in Japan in 1994 lessened the influence from those Diet members and the factions. But it is still difficult for fresh candidates whose father is not be a Diet man to be elected to the Diet in Japan where the ratio of hereditary Diet members is much higher than in the U.S. The road to reform Japanese political system is still steep.

 

“Yí

 

gPolitical rReform in Japanh

 

The Japanese political system had functioned well until the1970s or and1 the 1980s partly because highly capable bureaucrats were taking the helm of the nationfs economic development. But,The Japanese political system, however, could not catch up with the change of times. While the population in the urban areas rapidly increased, the number of representatives to the Diet from those areas remained unchanged. As the result, the number of representatives from the rural areas exceeded over-represented the rural population in the Diet2 that from urban areas.

 

This contributed to the growth of the power of Diet members who worked on behalf of special interests and for the benefits3 of the people lived in the rural areas. It also brought the unfair distributions of precious financial resources. This trend in Japan is opposite to that4 the political system in the U.S. where the constituencyfs size is revised every ten years. The 1994 reform of the election system in Japan in 1994 lessened the influence from of those Diet members with special connections with interest groups5 and the factions in the political parties. But it is still difficult for a fresh candidates whose parent father is was or is6 not be a Diet man to be elected to the Diet. in Japan where In Japan7, the percentage8 ratio of hereditary Diet members is much higher than in the U.S. The road to reform the Japanese political system is still remains steep.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       u‚P‚X‚V‚OA‚W‚O”N‘ã‚܂Łv‚Í‚Pu‚X‚V‚O”N‘ã‚Æ‚P‚X‚W‚O”N‘ã‚܂ł́v‚ĖˆÓ–Ą‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪBu‚P‚X‚W‚O”N‘ã‚܂ł́v‚Å‚P‚X‚V‚O”N‘ã‚āŠÜ‚Þ‚Í‚ļ‚Å‚·‚ŠA‚P‚X‚V‚O”N‘ã‚ā‹­’ē‚·‚é‚―‚ß‚É“ü‚ę‚―‚Ė‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ”_‘šog‹cˆõ‚Ėâ‘ΐ”‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­‚Ä‘Š‘ΐ”‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚ðŒū‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Åover-represent‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       on behalf of special interests and people in the rural areas‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æon behalf of ~‚Šinterest groups‚Æpeople in the rural areas‚É‚Đ‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·Bon behalf of the benefits of the people ~‚Æ‚Í•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ü‚đ‚ņB“Yí‚Å‚ÍŒãŽŌ‚ðfor the benefits of the people ~‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

4.       The trend in Japan is opposite to A ~‚ÅA‚Ítrend‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·BA‚ðthe political system in the U.S.‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æthe trend‚Æthe political system‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī“ņ‚‚ĖˆŲ‚Č‚Á‚―‚ā‚Ė‚ðŠr‚Ũ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

5.       ‚ą‚Ė•â‘Ŧā–ū‚ð“ü‚ę‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚Į‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č‹cˆõ‚Đ‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚·‚é‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

6.       eŽq‚Å‹cˆõ‚ð‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚éę‡‚ā—L‚é‚æ‚Ī‚Č‚Ė‚ŁAwas or is‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

7.       ‚ą‚ą‚Đ‚įV‚ĩ‚Ē•ķ‚É‚·‚é‚Æ“ā—e‚Š‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č“ĮŽŌ‚É“`‚í‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

8.       a ratio‚Íone out of ten‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ā‚Ė‚ŁAa percentage‚Í10 percent‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ā‚Ė‚Å‚·‚ˁBa percentage‚Ė‚Ų‚Ī‚Š“ĮŽŌ‚É‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB‚ģ‚­‚į‚ģ‚ņ‚Í“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ðŪ—‚ĩ‚āA•ķ‚Æ•ķ‚ĖŠÖ˜A‚É’ˆÓ‚ð•Ĩ‚Á‚ĉp•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ˁB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gPolitical Reform in Japanh

 

The Japanese political system had functioned well until the1970s and the1980s partly because highly capable bureaucrats were taking the helm of the nationfs economic development. The Japanese political system, however, could not catch up with the change of times. While the population in the urban areas rapidly increased, the number of representatives to the Diet from those areas remained unchanged. As the result, the number of representatives from the rural areas over-represented the rural population in the Diet.

 

This contributed to the growth of the power of Diet members who worked on behalf of special interests and for the benefits of the people in the rural areas. It also brought the unfair distribution of precious financial resources. This trend in Japan is opposite to that in the U.S. where the constituencyfs size is revised every ten years. The 1994 reform of the election system in Japan lessened the influence of those Diet members with special connections with interest groups and the factions in the political parties. But it is still difficult for a fresh candidate whose parent was or is not a Diet man to be elected to the Diet. In Japan, the percentage of hereditary Diet members is much higher than in the U.S. The road to reform the Japanese political system still remains steep.

 

 

 

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚PiYokota, 27 July 03j

 

gPolitical Reform in Japanh

 

Japanfs political system worked well until the 1970s and 1980s. The reasons was that efficient and effective bureaucrats were in charge of policy making. But the political system could not keep up pace with social change in Japan. Japan was rapidly urbanized, but urban residents could not send their share of representatives to the Diet. Rural residents sent their representatives to the Diet whose number was larger than the proportion of the rural population they represented.

 

This helped to create an interest group in the Diet representatives who worked for the benefits of the rural population they represented. As a result, the distribution of government budgets was skewed towards spending in the rural areas.

 

The continuation of unbalanced representation in Japan was in sharp contrast to the re-arrangement of electoral boundaries every ten year in the United States. Japan finally introduced a new election system in 1994 and reduced the power of the interest groups. Yet the number of Diet representatives who inherited the political base of their relatives is much larger in Japan than in the United States. This makes it quite difficult for new comers to go into politics in Japan. In Japan, it is still a long way to go before real political reform can be achieved.

 

“Yí

 

gPolitical Reform in Japanh

 

Japanfs political system worked well until the 1970s and 1980s. One of 1Tthe reasons that it worked well was that efficient and effective bureaucrats were in charge of policy making. But After the 1980s2, however, the political system could not keep up pace with social change in Japan. Japan was rapidly urbanized, but urban residents could not send their share of representatives to the Diet in proportion to their population3. Rural residents sent their representatives to the Diet whose number was in numbers larger than the proportion of the rural population they represented.

 

This over-representation of the rural population4 helped to create an interest group in the Diet whose5 representatives who worked for the benefits of the rural population they represented. As a result, the distribution of government budgets was skewed towards spending in the rural areas.

 

The continuation of unbalanced representation in Japan was in sharp contrast to the re-arrangement of electoral boundaries every ten year ten-years in the United States. Japan finally introduced a new election system in 1994 and reduced the power of the interest groups. Yet However, the number of Diet representatives who inherited the political base of their relatives is much larger in Japan than in the United States. This makes it quite difficult for new comers newcomers to go into politics in Japan. In Japan, it there is still a long way to go before real political reform can be achieved.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚͘_—“I‚ɍ\Ž‚ģ‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‰p•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ‚Ŧ‚ā“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‡˜‚ɏ]‚Ķ‚Θ_—“I‚ȍ\Ž‚Ė‰p•ķ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B‚ĩ‚Đ‚ĩA“ú–{•ķ‚Å‚Í•ķ‚Æ•ķ‚Ė‚‚ȂŠ‚č‚ŠŠČ—Š‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‰p•ķ‚Å‚Í•ķ‚Æ•ķ‚Ė‚‚ȂŠ‚č‚ð‚æ‚­‚·‚é‚æ‚Ī‚Č•›ŽŒ‚â•›ŽŒ‹å‚ðŽg‚Ī‚Æ—Į‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚Ē‚Ü‚·Yokota‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė“Še‚Í“ú–{•ķ‚ĖŽš‹å‚ð‚ŧ‚Ė‚Ü‚Ü’ž–ó‚ĩ‚Č‚Ē‚Å“ā—e‚ð‰pŒę‚Å•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Š—Į‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       u—DG‚ČŠŊ—ŧv‚Ė‘ķÝ‚͂ЂƂ‚Ė—vˆö‚Å‚Ų‚Đ‚É‚ā‚―‚­‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė—vˆö‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚―‚Đ‚įA“ú–{•ķ‚Ėu‚ЂƂ‚ɂ́v‚Í’P‚Č‚éCü‹åˆČã‚ĖˆÓ–Ą‚Š‚ ‚é‚ÆŽv‚Ē‚Ü‚·B­‚ĩ‚­‚Į‚Ē‚Ū‚į‚Ē‚ÉOne of the reasons that it worked wellc‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

2.       “ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Đ‚įŒĐ‚āAAfter the 1980s‚Š•K—v‚Å‚·B

 

3.       their share of representatives‚Å‚ā‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚ł͐ģŠm‚Éin proportion to their population‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

4.       “ú–{•ķ‚ł́u‚ą‚ę‚Šv‚Ə‘‚Ē‚Ä‚ ‚é‚ū‚Ŋ‚Å‚·‚ŠA‰p•ķ‚ł͐V‚ĩ‚Ē’i—Ž‚Č‚Ė‚ŁAThis over-representation of the rural population‚Ɓu‚ą‚ę‚Šv‚Š‰―‚ðŽw‚·‚Ė‚Đ‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ģ‚đ‚Ü‚·BƒvƒŒƒCƒ“EƒCƒ“ƒOƒŠƒbƒVƒ…‚ÍŠČ’P–ū—Ä‚ðŽ|‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ü‚·‚ŠAˆÓ–Ą‚ð–ū—Ä‚É‚·‚é‚―‚ß‚É‚Í•ķ‚Š’·‚­‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚ā‚Đ‚Ü‚Ē‚Ü‚đ‚ņB

 

5.       u‘°‹cˆõv‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚æ‚Ī‚Č“ú–{Œę‚ĖŠĩ—p‹å‚ðˆę”Ę“I‚ȉpŒę‚Ė•ķÍi˜_•ķ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­‚āj‚Ė’†‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ‚Ŧ‚É‚ÍYokota‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ÉŒę‹å‚Ė“ā—e‚ðā–ū‚·‚é‚Ė‚Š—Į‚Ē‚Å‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gPolitical Reform in Japanh

 

Japanfs political system worked well until the 1970s and 1980s. One of the reasons that it worked well was that efficient and effective bureaucrats were in charge of policy making. After the 1980s, however, the political system could not keep pace with social change in Japan. Japan was rapidly urbanized, but urban residents could not send their representatives to the Diet in proportion to their population. Rural residents sent representatives to the Diet  in numbers larger than the proportion of the rural population they represented.

 

This over-representation of the rural population helped to create an interest group in the Diet whose5 representatives worked for the benefit of the rural population. As a result, the distribution of government budgets was skewed towards spending in the rural areas.

 

The continuation of unbalanced representation in Japan was in sharp contrast to the re-arrangement of electoral boundaries every ten-years in the United States. Japan finally introduced a new election system in 1994 and reduced the power of the interest groups. However, the number of Diet representatives who inherit the political base of their relatives is much larger in Japan than in the United States. This makes it quite difficult for newcomers to go into politics in Japan. In Japan, there is still a long way to go before real political reform can be achieved.

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚Qu“ú–{‚Ė‘åŠw‚Ė‘Û‹Ģ‘ˆ—́v

 

Ž„‚Í“ú•Ä‚Ė‘åŠw‚Å‚Q‚T”NˆČã‹ģ‚Ķ‚―‚ŠAŽ„‚ĖŒoŒą‚Đ‚į‚·‚é‚Æ“ú–{‚Ė‘åŠw‚ɂ͍‘Û‹Ģ‘ˆ—Í‚Š‚Č‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚ĪB‘Û‹Ģ‘ˆ—Í‚Ė‚ ‚é‘åŠw‚Ƃ͈ę”Ę“I‚ÉŒū‚Á‚ĐĒŠE’†‚ĖŽá‚Ēl‚―‚ŋ‚ŠŠw‚Ņ‚ɍs‚Ŧ‚―‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚Ī‚æ‚Ī‚Č‘åŠwA‚ŧ‚ĩ‚ÄŠé‹Æ‚âŒĪ‹†ŠA‘Û‹@ŠÖA­•{‚Č‚Į‚Š‘ē‹Æķ‚ðŒŲ‚Ē‚―‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚Ī‚æ‚Ī‚Č‘åŠw‚ū‚ë‚ĪB

 

‘åŠw‚Ė‹Ģ‘ˆ—͂𐭕{‚Š”ŧ’f‚·‚é‚Ė‚͍łā‰šŽč‚Č‚â‚č•û‚Å‚ ‚éB”ŧ’f‚ÍŽsę‚É‚Ü‚Đ‚đ‚é•û‚Š—Į‚ĒB‘ē‹Æķ‚ðŒŲ—p‚·‚éŠé‹Æ‚âAŠwķ‚Æ‚ŧ‚ĖŠw”ï‚ð•Ĩ‚Ī—že‚Ė”ŧ’f‚ŠŠî€‚É‚Č‚éB

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Uimxtomi, 1 December 11j

 

"International competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh 

 

My experience of teaching at universities both in the US and Japan for over 25 years has led me to believe that universities in Japan lack international competitiveness. An internationally competitive university defined here is the one which young people all around the world aspire to enter, and the ones from which many companies, research institutes, international organizations, governments etc. want to hire graduates. It is not wise for governments to judge the competitiveness of universities. Rather, the value of universities should be left to market mechanisms. Companies who hire the graduates, students themselves and their parents who pay tuitions will provide better criteria for evaluating international competitiveness of universities

 

“Yí

 

"International competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh 

 

My experience of teaching at universities both in the US and Japan for over 25 years has led me to believe that universities in Japan lack international competitiveness. An internationally competitive university is defined here is as the one which young people all around the world aspire to enter, and the ones from which many companies, research institutes, international organizations, governments etc. want to hire its graduates. It is not wise for governments1 to judge the competitiveness of a universityies2. Rather, the value of a universityies should be left to market mechanisms. Companies who hire the graduates, students themselves and their parents who pay tuitions will provide better criteria for evaluating the international competitiveness of the universityies

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ŠĨŽŒ‚Č‚ĩ‚Łu­•{ˆę”ʁv‚Æ‚ĩ‚―•û‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ’P”‚É‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Æ‚Ļ‚ā‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"International competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh 

 

My experience of teaching at universities both in the US and Japan for over 25 years has led me to believe that universities in Japan lack international competitiveness. An internationally competitive university is defined here as the one which young people all around the world aspire to enter and many companies, research institutes, international organizations, governments etc. want to hire its graduates. It is not wise for government to judge the competitiveness of a university. Rather, the value of a university should be left to market. Companies who hire graduates, students themselves and their parents who pay tuitions will provide better criteria for evaluating the international competitiveness of the university

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Ti‚ ‚·‚ЁA20 January 10j

 

"International Competitiveness of Japanese Universities"

 

I have over 25 years of experience in teaching at the universities in both Japan and the U.S. From my experience, I admit that universities in Japan don't meet international competitiveness. In general, universities that developed international competitiveness are swamped with numerous prospective students from all over the country, and are hoped to hire the graduate students by companies, research institutions, international organizations and governments. Universities competitiveness should be evaluated in the job market not by the government.  It is based on the companies' evaluation and parents' evaluation, who pay for the college tuitions for their children.

 

“Yí

 

"International Competitiveness of Japanese Universities"

 

I have over 25 years of experience in teaching at the universities in both in Japan and the U.S. From my experience, I am sorry to say admit that universities in Japan are not don't meet internationally competitiveness. In general, universities that are developed internationally competitiveness are swamped with applications from numerous prospective students from all over the world country, and are hoped to hire1 their graduates students are sought after by companies, research institutions, international organizations and governments.

 

International Universities competitiveness of universities should not be evaluated by government in the job market not by the government.  It should be evaluated2 by companies who hire graduates is based on the companies' evaluation and parents' evaluation, who pay for the college tuitions for their children.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‘å•”•Š‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚í‚Đ‚č“ï‚ĒŠ‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       universities are hoped to hire the graduates students by companies‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī\•ķ‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņB“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ÉŽåŒę‚ð•Ï‚Ķ‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ~ should not evaluated by government. It should be evaluated by ~.‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī“Ŋ‚ķŒ`ŽŪ‚É‚·‚é‚Æ“Į‚Ý‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"International Competitiveness of Japanese Universities"

 

I have over 25 years of experience in teaching at universities both in Japan and the U.S. From my experience, I am sorry to say that universities in Japan are not internationally competitive. In general, universities that are internationally competitive are swamped with applications from numerous students from all over the world and their graduates are sought after by companies, research institutions, international organizations and governments.

 

International competitiveness of universities should not be evaluated by government. It should be evaluated by companies who hire graduates and parents who pay tuitions for their children.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA23 October 08j

 

International Competitiveness of Japanese Colleges

 

I have been teaching at colleges both in Japan and the United State for more than 25 years.  In my experience, I am sure that Japanese colleges lack international competitiveness. Generally speaking, I guess, colleges of international competitiveness attract youngsters from all over the world and their graduates are in high demand on companies, research institutes, international organizations and governments.

 

It is not smart to depend on governments for evaluating competitiveness of colleges. The evaluation should be referred to the open market. The benchmark of colleges will be composed of decisions by companies which hire the graduates, students who want to go to colleges or parents who pay tuitions for their children.

 

“Yí

 

International Competitiveness of Japanese Colleges Universities1

 

I have been teaching at colleges university both in Japan and the United State for more than 25 years.  In From my experience, I say2 am sure that Japanese universities colleges lack international competitiveness. Generally speaking, I guess, universities colleges of with international competitiveness attract youngsters from all over the world and their graduates are in high demand by on companies, research institutes, international organizations and governments.

 

It is not smart right3 to depend on governments‚S for evaluating competitiveness of universities colleges. The evaluation should be left referred to the open market. Then, International competitiveness will be judged The benchmark of colleges will be composed of decisions by companies which hire the graduates, students who want to go to universities colleges or and parents who pay tuitions for their children.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‚Ų‚Ú‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠThe benchmark of colleges will be composed of decisions by companiesc‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņB“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É’žB‚ČŒū‚Ē•û‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

‰p‘‚Å‚Ía university‚Š‚Ē‚­‚‚ЂĖcolleges‚É‚Đ‚į\Ž‚ģ‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚ā‚Ė‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B•Ä‘‚ł͐ę–å‰Č–Ú‚Ė‚·‚­‚Č‚Ē‚ā‚Ė‚Ša collegeA‘‡‘åŠw‚Ša university‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•Š‚Ŋ•û‚Šˆę”Ę“I‚Å‚·B

 

From my experience, I say that ~‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æexperience‚ÆthatˆČ‰š‚Š‚‚ȂŠ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

it is not smart‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƁuŒø—Ķ‚Ė‚æ‚Ē‚â‚č•û‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Ē‚ŠAŒ‹‰Ę‚͏o‚év‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪŠī‚ķ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·BuÅ‚ā‰šŽč‚Č‚â‚č•û‚Å‚ ‚év‚Ė^ˆÓ‚́u‚ą‚Ī‚Ē‚Ī‚â‚č•û‚Å‚Í‘Ę–Ú‚Å‚ ‚év‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚Ī‚Đ‚įAit is not right‚Æ–ū”’‚É•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

‚ ‚Ė­•{A‚ą‚Ė­•{‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‹ï‘Ė“I‚Ȑ­•{‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­A­•{iŒö‹Ī‹@ŠÖjˆę”Ę‚ðŽw‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

International Competitiveness of Japanese Universities

 

I have been teaching at university both in Japan and the United State for more than 25 years.  From my experience, I say that Japanese universities lack international competitiveness. Generally speaking, I guess, universities with international competitiveness attract youngsters from all over the world and their graduates are in high demand by companies, research institutes, international organizations and governments.

 

It is not right to depend on government for evaluating competitiveness of universities. The evaluation should be left to the market. Then, International competitiveness will be judged  by companies which hire graduates, students who want to go to universities and parents who pay tuitions for their children.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚RiKalo, 9 June 07j

 

Japanese universities have become uncompetitive at international standards. I'm sure of it from over 25 years of experience in teaching at Japanese and American universities. In general, internationally - competitive universities can attract young people from all over the world and also provide competent graduates of international standards required by companies, research institutions, international organizations and governments.

 

It is not the government but the markets that evaluate universities. This is because universities can be evaluated more fairly and severely by companies who hire graduates and parents who pay tuition fees for their children.

  

“Yí

 

International Competitiveness of Japanese Universities

 

Japanese universities have become uncompetitive at in international competition standards. I'm sure of it based on from over 25 years of experience in teaching at both Japanese and American universities. In general, internationally - competitive universities can attract young people from all over the world and also provide competent graduates of international standards students who are sought after1 required by companies, research institutions, international organizations and governments.

 

It is not the government but the open markets that should2 evaluate universities. This is because universities can be evaluated more fairly and severely by companies who hire graduates and parents who pay tuition fees for their children.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       u‚ŧ‚ĩ‚ÄŠé‹Æ‚âŒĪ‹†ŠA‘Û‹@ŠÖA­•{‚Č‚Į‚Š‘ē‹Æķ‚ðŒŲ‚Ē‚―‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚Īv‚ÍŽsę‚Ė”ŧ’f‚É”C‚đ‚Ä‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚΁A‚ą‚ę‚į‚ĖŒŲ—pŽŌ‚Ši‘åŠw‚Š‚Į‚Īé“`‚ĩ‚æ‚Ī‚ƁjŠwķ‚ĖŽŋ‚ðŽĐŽå“I‚É”ŧ’f‚·‚é‚ą‚Æ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·‚Đ‚įA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ‚ą‚Ė–â‘č‚ĖŠî‚É‚Č‚Á‚―V•·‚Ė“Še‚́A“–ŽžA­•{‚ŠŒĪ‹†”ï‚ĖŒø—Ķ“I‚ČŠ„‚č“–‚Ä‚Ė‚―‚߂ɁA‘åŠw‚ĖŒĪ‹†‚ĖŽŋ‚ð”ŧ’f‚·‚éA‚Æ‚Ē‚Á‚―‚æ‚Ī‚Č“Ū‚Ŧ‚Š‚ ‚čA‚ŧ‚ę‚ɑ΂ĩ‚Ä‚ĖˆÓŒĐ‚ū‚Á‚―‚ÆŽv‚Ē‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č”wŒi‚Š‚ ‚ę‚΁A“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Éshould‚Š“KØ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

International Competitiveness of Japanese Universities

 

Japanese universities have become uncompetitive in international competition. I'm sure of it based on over 25 years of experience teaching at both Japanese and American universities. In general, internationally competitive universities can attract young people from all over the world and graduate students who are sought after by companies, research institutions, international organizations and governments.

 

It is not the government but the open market that should evaluate universities. This is because universities can be evaluated more fairly and severely by companies who hire graduates and parents who pay tuition fees for their children.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA22 Feb 07j

 

gInternational competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh

 

I have been teaching at universities both in Japan and the U.S. more than 25 years and I have thought that Japanese universities lack international competitiveness. What I mean as the word of international competitiveness are appeals of a university which attracts young people in the world to study there and which turns out graduates whom companies, research institutes, international organizations and governments in the world want to hire.

 

It is not a good way that the government evaluates the universities. The evaluation should be left to the market. In the other words, companies, students and parents should judge whether the university is worth to hire the graduates, to attend or to pay school fee.

 

“Yí

 

gInternational competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh

 

I have been teaching at universities both in Japan and the U.S. more than 25 years. From my experience, I conclude1 and I have thought that Japanese universities lack international competitiveness. What I mean by as the word of international competitiveness are is the quality appeals of a university which attracts young people in from all over the world to study there and which turns them into out graduates whom companies, research institutes, international organizations and governments in the world worldwide want to hire.

 

It is not a good way that the2 government evaluates the3 universities. The evaluation should be left to the open market. In the other words, companies, students and parents should judge whether the university is worth their while to hire the its graduates, to attend or to pay school fees for their children4.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       ‚Q‚T”N‚ĖŒoŒą‚Đ‚įA‚Æ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‘O‚Ė•ķ‚Æ‚ĖŠÖ˜A‚Š‚æ‚­‚Č‚é‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       the government‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƁA“ĮŽŌ‚Š—đ‰ð‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é“ú–{­•{A‚Æ‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚ł͐­•{ˆę”Ę‚Æ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       ‚ą‚ą‚ā­•{‚Š‘åŠwˆę”Ę‚ð•]‰ŋ‚·‚éA‚Æ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

4.       u‘ē‹Æķ‚ðŒŲ—p‚·‚éŠé‹Æ‚âAŠwķ‚Æ‚ŧ‚ĖŠw”ï‚ð•Ĩ‚Ī—že‚Ė”ŧ’f‚ŠŠî€‚É‚Č‚éBv‚ð@In other words, companies, students and parents should judge whether the university is worth their while to hire its graduates, to attend or to pay school fees for their children.‚Æ“ā—e‚ð•â‘Ŧ‚ĩ‚Ä•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚―‚Ė‚Í‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁBŠé‹ÆAŠwķA—že‚ĖŽåŒę‚Æwhetherß‚Ė“ā—e‚Š•Ās\‘Ē‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Å‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gInternational competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh

 

I have been teaching at universities both in Japan and the U.S. more than 25 years. From my experience, I conclude that Japanese universities lack international competitiveness. What I mean by international competitiveness is the quality of a university which attracts young people from all over the world and turns them into graduates whom companies, research institutes, international organizations and governments worldwide want to hire.

 

It is not a good way that government evaluates universities. The evaluation should be left to the open market. In other words, companies, students and parents should judge whether the university is worth their while to hire its graduates, to attend or to pay school fees for their children.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚PiPeach, 27 July 03j

 

gInternational Competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh

 

I donft think that Japanese universities have international competitiveness. This is my conclusion based on my experience of having taught at Japanese and American universities for twenty five years. Generally speaking, universities with international competitiveness can attract young people worldwide, graduates students who are sought after by private companies, research institutes, international organizations, and governments.

 

Judging international competitiveness by government is the worst way. Judging must be left to the market. Companies who hire university graduates and parents who pay tuition fees for their children will be the best judges.

 

“Yí

 

gInternational Competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh

 

I donft think believe1 that Japanese universities have international competitiveness. This is my My conclusion is based on twenty-five years of my experience of having taught teaching at Japanese and American universities2 for twenty five years. Generally speaking, universities3 with international competitiveness can attract young people worldwide, graduates students who are sought after by private companies, research institutes, international organizations, and governments.

 

Judging international competitiveness by the government is the worst way to judge. Judging must be left to the open4 market. Companies who hire university graduates and parents who pay tuition fees for their children will ultimately5 be the best judges.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       Ē“ú–{‚Ė‘åŠw‚͍‘Û‹Ģ‘ˆ—Í‚Š–ģ‚ĒĢ‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚Ė‚Í‚ą‚Ė•ķÍ‚Ė’˜ŽŌ‚ĖŒoŒą‚ÉŠî‚­ŒĐ‰ð‚Č‚Ė‚ŁAI donft think‚æ‚čI donft believe‚Ė‚Ų‚Ī‚Š’˜ŽŌ‚ĖˆÓŒĐ‚Å‚ ‚é‚ą‚ƁA’˜ŽŌ‚Š‹­‚­‚ŧ‚ĪŽv‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š“ĮŽŌ‚É‚æ‚­“`‚í‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       My conclusion isc‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ•ķ‚Š‚·‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ä“ā—e‚Š–ū‰õ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       “ú–{•ķ‚Ė\•ķ‚Ɉø‚Ŧ‚Âį‚ę‚é‚ƁAuniversities with international competitiveness are the ones that can attract young peoplec‚Æ‚Č‚č‚Š‚ŋ‚Å‚·‚ŠAPeach‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė“Še‚Ė‚æ‚Īuniversities with international competitiveness can attract young peoplec‚Æ•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ•ķ‚Š‚·‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

4.       open ‚ð“ü‚ę‚é‚Ɓu‘åŠw‚āŽsę‚Å‚ĩ‚Ė‚Ž‚ðí‚év‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Š‹­’ē‚ģ‚ę‚Ü‚·B

 

5.       ultimately‚ð‚Ē‚ę‚āuŠwķ‚Ė•ƒŒZ‚ŠÅI“I‚É”ŧ’f‚·‚év‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚ð‹­’ē‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gInternational Competitiveness of Japanese Universitiesh

 

I donft believe that Japanese universities have international competitiveness. My conclusion is based on twenty-five years of experience teaching at Japanese and American universities. Generally speaking, universities with international competitiveness can attract young people worldwide, graduate students who are sought after by private companies, research institutes, international organizations, and governments.

 

Judging international competitiveness by the government is the worst way to judge. Judging must be left to the open market. Companies who hire university graduates and parents who pay tuition fees for their children will ultimately be the best judges.

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚Ru“ú–{ŒoÏ•ÏŠv‚Ė•Įi‚Pjv

 

íŒã‚Ė“ú–{‚Ė‚“xŽ’·‚́A—AoŽY‹Æ‚𒆐S‚Æ‚ĩ‚―“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚É‚æ‚éķŽYŦ‚ĖŒüã‚ŠŽx‚Ķ‚―B]‹Æˆõ‚ð“O’ę“I‚É‹ģˆįŒP—û‚ĩAƒ`[ƒ€ƒ[ƒN‚Ė—Į‚ģ‚ŐķŽYŒø—Ķ‚ðã‚°‚éŒo‰c‚𐄂ĩi‚ß‚―B‚ŧ‚ĖŒ‹‰ĘA“ú–{‚ĖHę‚Ė˜J“­ķŽYŦ‚͐ĒŠEÅ‚‚É‚Č‚Á‚―B

@

–â‘č‚Í‚ą‚Ī‚ĩ‚―Žč–@‚Š‚P‚X‚W‚O”N‘OŒã‚ÅŒĀŠE‚ðŒ}‚Ķ‚―‚ą‚Æ‚ūB‚Ē‚­‚įˆęķŒœ–―‚â‚Á‚Ä‚ā]—ˆˆČã‚ɘJ“­ķŽYŦ‚ðã‚°‚é‚Ė‚Í•s‰Â”\‚É‚Č‚Á‚―Bˆę•ûA•Ä‘‚Í“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚ū‚Ŋ‚Å‚Č‚­A‚ŧ‚ĖŒã‚Ėî•ņ‹ZpŠv–―‚āÏ‹É“I‚É“ą“ü‚ĩ‚ĐķŽYŦ‚ðã‚°‚Ä‚Ŧ‚―B“ú–{‚āî•ņ‹ZpŠv–―‚ð‚ā‚Á‚ÆŠˆ—p‚ĩ‚āAV‚ĩ‚ĒŽ–‹Æ‚ðŠJ‘ņ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚­‚Ũ‚Ŧ‚ū‚Á‚―B

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Timxtomi, 17 Janunary 12j

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (1)h

 

The productivity improvement achieved in and around export industries by Japanese-style management brought rapid economic growth in post-war Japan. Japan's unique business management systems which centered on thorough education/training of employees coupled with good team work were instrumental in enhancing its labor productivity to the highest level in the world. The problem was that these approaches saw their limit around the year of 1980. It became apparent that they were unable to improve labor productivity no matter how hard they tried. Meanwhile, the US had been boosting their productivity by vigorously adopting not only Japanese-style management but also the ensuing information technology revolution. Japan should have pursued new business opportunities by better exploiting the information technology revolution.

 

“Yí

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (1)h

 

The productivity improvement achieved in and around export industries by the use of Japanese-style management brought rapid economic growth in post-war Japan. Japan's unique business management systems1 which centered on thorough education/training of employees coupled with good team work were was instrumental in enhancing its labor productivity to the highest level in the world. The problem was that these approaches saw their limits around the year of 1980. Since then, Iit became apparent that these approaches they2 were unable to improve labor productivity no matter how hard they were tried. Meanwhile, the US had been boosting their productivity by vigorously adopting not only Japanese-style management but also new innovations coming out of the ensuing information technology revolution. Japan should have pursued new business opportunities by better exploiting the information technology revolution much more aggressively.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       Japanfs unique management system‚Æ’P”‚Ɉĩ‚Ī‚Ė‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ‚ą‚Ėthey‚ÍŠųo‚Ėthese approaches‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė‚―‚ßhowever hard they were tried‚Æ‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (1)h

 

The productivity improvement achieved in and around export industries by the use of Japanese-style management brought rapid economic growth in post-war Japan. Japan's unique business management system which centered on education/training of employees coupled with good team work was instrumental in enhancing its labor productivity to the highest level in the world. The problem was that these approaches saw their limits around the year of 1980. Since then, it became apparent that these approaches were unable to improve labor productivity no matter how hard they were tried. Meanwhile, the US had been boosting their productivity by vigorously adopting not only Japanese-style management but also new innovations coming out of the information technology revolution. Japan should have pursued new business opportunities by exploiting the information technology revolution much more aggressively.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA28 October 08j

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (1)

 

The rapid economic growth in Japan after World War II was underpinned by high productivity that was brought by Japanese-style management, mainly in export-oriented industry. Hard training and education for employees and good teamwork contributed to improving high productivity. As a result, those efforts made Japanese labor productivity the highest in the world.

 

The problem was that the Japanese way reached the limit around 1980. Any effort could not bring any increase of productivity in Japan. While the industry in the United States has boosted the productivity by introducing not only Japanese-style management but also aggressively innovations of information technology.  Japan should have used the innovation of information technology in more positive manner and embarked on new enterprises.

 

“Yí

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (1)

 

The rapid economic growth in Japan after World War II was underpinned by high productivity that was brought into Japanese industry1 by Japanese-style management, particularly mainly into export-oriented industryies. Hard training and education for employees and good teamwork contributed to improving high productivity. As a result, those efforts made Japanese labor productivity the highest in the world.

 

The problem was that the Japanese way reached the limit around 1980. Any further effort could no longer not bring any increase in of productivity in Japan. While the industry in the United States has boosted its the productivity by aggressively‚Q introducing not only Japanese-style management but also aggressively innovations of in information technology.  Japan should have used the innovations in of information technology in more aggressively positive manner and embarked on new enterprises.

 

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“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ŧ‘Ē‹Æˆę”Ę‚Í•s‰ÁŽZ–žŽŒ‚ĖindustryA‚ą‚ą‚ĖŽY‹Æ‚Ían industry‚Æ‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       by introducing not only A but also B‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī\‘Ē‚Č‚Ė‚Ō㔞‚ū‚Ŋ‚Éaggressively‚ð“ü‚ę‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Í‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ü‚đ‚ņB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (1)

 

The rapid economic growth in Japan after World War II was underpinned by high productivity that was brought into Japanese industry by Japanese-style management, particularly into export-oriented industries. Hard training and education for employees and good teamwork contributed to improving productivity. As a result, those efforts made Japanese labor productivity the highest in the world.

 

The problem was that the Japanese way reached the limit around 1980. Any further effort could no longer bring any increase in productivity in Japan. While industry in the United States has boosted its productivity by aggressively introducing not only Japanese-style management but also innovations in information technology. Japan should have used innovations in information technology more aggressively and embarked on new enterprises.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚RiKalo, 4 June 07j

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in Economy

 

In the postwar period, the improvement of productivity played a major role in remarkable economic growth in Japan. To achieve a higher level of productivity, a large number of Japanese firms, mainly in export-oriented industry, took an approach to management known as Japanese-style management in which more emphasis was given to the development of trained workforce and teamwork. Japanese firms achieved, then, the highest labor productivity in the world.

 

This approach, however, reached a limit around 1980, revealing that it was no longer effective to improve productivity even further. Japanese firms attached to this approach; on the other hand, U. S firms, which had been taking advantage of it, eagerly absorbed information technologies and successfully improved productivity. Japanese firms should have also made use of information technologies to expand their businesses.

 

“Yí

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese Economy

 

In the postwar period, the improvement of in productivity played a major role in the remarkable economic growth in Japan1. To achieve a higher level of productivity, a large number of Japanese firms, mainly in export-oriented industryies, took an approach to management known as Japanese-style management in which more2 an emphasis was given to the development of trained workforce and teamwork. As a result, Japanese firms could achieved, then, the highest labor productivity in the world.

 

This approach, however, reached a limit around 1980, revealing that it was no longer effective possible to keep improveing productivity even further. But Japanese firms attached were stuck to this approach; . oOn the other hand, U. S firms, which had been taking advantage of it adopting Japanese management3, eagerly absorbed information technologies and successfully improved productivity further. With hindsight, Japanese firms should have also made use of information technologies more extensively to expand their businesses.

 

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1.       “ú–{•ķ‚́uíŒã‚Ė“ú–{‚Ė‚“xŽ’·‚́v‚Æ“ú–{‚Ė‚“xŽ’·‚ŠŽåŒę‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠAKalo‚ģ‚ņ‚́uķŽYŦ‚ĖŒüãv‚ð‰p•ķ‚ĖŽåŒę‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ˁB•ķÍ‚ĖŽå‘č‚ŠķŽYŦ‚ɂ‚Ē‚Ä‚Č‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė‚Ų‚Ī‚Š•ķÍ‚ɐŪ‡Ŧ‚Š‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       more‚Í”äŠr‹‰‚Å‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚ł͉―‚Æ”äŠr‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Đ‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņ‚ˁB•ķÍ‚ĖÅŒã‚Ėmore extensively (than what they had actually done) ‚ĖˆÓ–Ą‚Å‚·‚ŠAŠ‡ŒĘ‚Ė“ā—e‚Š‚Č‚­‚Ä‚ā‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       it‚Š‰―‚ðŽw‚·‚Ė‚Đ•s–ū‚Å‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese Economy

 

In the postwar period, the improvement in productivity played a major role in the remarkable economic growth in Japan. To achieve a higher level of productivity, a large number of Japanese firms, mainly in export-oriented industries, took an approach to management known as Japanese-style management in which an emphasis was given to the development of trained workforce and teamwork. As a result, Japanese firms could achieved the highest labor productivity in the world.

 

This approach, however, reached a limit around 1980, revealing that it was no longer possible to keep improving productivity. But Japanese firms were stuck to this approach. On the other hand, U. S firms, which had been taking advantage of adopting Japanese management, eagerly absorbed information technologies and successfully improved productivity further. With hindsight, Japanese firms should have also made use of information technologies more extensively to expand their businesses.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA25 February 07j

 

gObstacle in Japanese economic growthh

 

After World War II, focusing on export, Japanese economy grew rapidly supported by high productivity which is one of the characteristics of Japanese management style. Japanese companies took a strategy to increase productivity by providing intensive job trainings to their employees and neutering good team work in workplaces. As the result, Japanese companies realized the highest productivity in the world. The problem was the strategy faced a limit around 1980. While Japan was pursuing high productivity, the U.S. which had already adopted Japanese style of management, started to introduce new information technologies to their business and raised its productivity. Japan should have also employed the emerging information technologies to develop new businesses.

 

“Yí

 

gObstacle in to Japanese eEconomic gGrowthh

 

After World War II, focusing on export, the Japanese economy grew rapidly, focusing on exports1 and supported by high productivity which is was achieved by the one of the characteristics of2 Japanese management style. Japanese companies took a strategy to increase productivity by providing intensive job trainings to their employees and neutering emphasizing good team work in workplaces. As the result, Japanese companies realized the highest productivity in the world. The problem was, however, that the this strategy faced a limit around 1980. While Japan was pursuing high productivity, the U.S., which had already adopted the Japanese style of management, started to introduce new information technologies to their businesses and raised its productivity. Japan should have also employed adopted the emerging information technologies to develop new businesses.

 

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1.       ‚ą‚ą‚É“ü‚ę‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š•ķ‚ĖƒŠƒYƒ€‚Š‚æ‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       “ú–{“IŒo‰c‚Ė“Á’Ĩ‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚æ‚čA“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä’BŽ‚ģ‚ę‚―A‚Æ‚·‚é‚Ų‚Ī‚ŠķŽYŦ‚ÆŒo‰cŽč–@‚ĖŠÖ˜A‚Š‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚·‚é‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gObstacle to Japanese Economic Growthh

 

After World War II, the Japanese economy grew rapidly, focusing on exports and supported by high productivity which was achieved by the Japanese management style. Japanese companies took a strategy to increase productivity by providing intensive job trainings to their employees and emphasizing good team work in workplaces. As the result, Japanese companies realized the highest productivity in the world. The problem was, however, that  this strategy faced a limit around 1980. While Japan was pursuing high productivity, the U.S., which had already adopted the Japanese style of management, started to introduce new information technologies to their businesses and raised its productivity. Japan should have also adopted the emerging information technologies to develop new businesses.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Pi‚Ē‚ļ‚݁A27 July 03j

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (1)h

 

Japanfs post-war economic growth was supported by increasing industrial productivity, particularly in export-oriented industries. The Japanese management system placed emphasis on on-the-job training and team work to improve industrial productivity. As a result, Japanese production factories achieved the highest labour productivity in the world.

 

The biggest problem the Japanese economy faced was that the Japanese management system hit its limitations around 1980. It became impossible to keep improving productivity however hard they tried. In the meantime, the United States imported merits of the Japanese management system and moreover aggressively applied information technologies to the improvement of productivity. Japan should have been more aggressive to use information technologies to explore new business opportunities.

 

“Yí

 

gBarriers1 to Economic Reform in Japan (1)h

 

Japanfs post-war economic growth was supported by increasing industrial productivity, particularly in export-oriented industries2. The Japanese management system placed emphasis on on-the-job training and team work teamwork to improve industrial productivity. As a result, Japanese production factories achieved the highest labour productivity in the world.

 

The biggest problem the Japanese economy faced was that the Japanese management system hit its limitations around 1980. It became impossible to keep improving productivity however hard they tried. In the meantime, the United States imported merits of the Japanese management system and moreover aggressively applied information technologies to the improvement of productivity. With hindsight3, Japan should have been more aggressive to use in using information technologies to explore new business opportunities.

 

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‚Ē‚ļ‚Ý‚ģ‚ņ‚Í“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ð‚æ‚­l‚Ķ‚ĉp•ķ‚ōč\’z‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B“Á‚É’i—Ž‘S‘Ė‚Ė“ā—e‚ð“ú–{•ķ‚Ė•ķ‚ĖØ‚ę–Ú‚É‚Æ‚į‚í‚ę‚ļ‚ɉp•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ ‚é‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       u`‚Ė•Įv‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•\Œŧ‚͉pŒę‚Å‚Íbarriers to ~‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•\Œŧ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       uíŒã‚Ė“ú–{‚Ė‚“xŽ’·‚́A—AoŽY‹Æ‚𒆐S‚Æ‚ĩ‚―“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚É‚æ‚éķŽYŦ‚ĖŒüã‚ŠŽx‚Ķ‚―Bv‚Ė—v“_‚́uíŒã‚Ė“ú–{‚Ė‚“xŽ’·‚͐ķŽYŦ‚ĖŒüã‚ŠŽx‚Ķ‚―Bv‚Å‚·B‚Ē‚ļ‚Ý‚ģ‚ņ‚Í‚ą‚Ė“ā—e‚ðÅ‰‚ɉp•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Đ‚įAu—AoŽY‹Æ‚𒆐S‚Æ‚ĩ‚―`v‚ðparticularly in export-oriented industries‚Æ•ķ‚ĖÅŒã‚É•t‚Ŋ‘Ŧ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B“ú–{•ķ‚Å‚Í’·‚ĒCüß‚Š•ķ‚Ė’†‚É‚ ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š‘―‚Ē‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ȏCüß‚Ė“ā—e‚Í‚ą‚Ė—á‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É•ķ‚ĖÅŒã‚Ė•t‚Ŋ‘Ŧ‚ĩ‚―‚čA‚Ü‚―‚Í•Ę‚Ė•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚ƁA•ķ‚Ė—v“_‚ðŠČŒ‰‚ɏq‚Ũ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ü‚·B‚Ü‚―u“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚É‚æ‚é`v‚ÍŽŸ‚Ė•ķÍ‚Å“ā—e‚ðā–ū‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       •ķ‚Ė‚‚ȂŠ‚č‚ð‚æ‚­‚·‚é‚―‚ß‚ÉWith hindsight (Œã‚ōl‚Ķ‚Ä‚Ý‚ę‚Î)‚ð‚Ē‚ę‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (1)h

 

Japanfs post-war economic growth was supported by increasing industrial productivity, particularly in export-oriented industries. The Japanese management system placed emphasis on on-the-job training and  teamwork to improve industrial productivity. As a result, Japanese production factories achieved the highest labour productivity in the world.

 

The biggest problem the Japanese economy faced was that the Japanese management system hit its limitations around 1980. It became impossible to keep improving productivity however hard they tried. In the meantime, the United States imported merits of the Japanese management system and moreover aggressively applied information technologies to the improvement of productivity. With hindsight, Japan should have been more aggressive in using information technologies to explore new business opportunities.

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚Su“ú–{ŒoÏ•ÏŠv‚Ė•Įi‚Qjv

 

î•ņ‹Zp‚ðŠˆ—p‚ĩ‚ĐVŽ–‹Æ‚ðŠJ”­‚·‚é‚ą‚Æ‚ð‘j‚ņ‚ū—vˆö‚Í“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚ŧ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚ū‚Á‚―B“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚́A]‹Æˆõ‚Æ‚Ė‹­‚ĒM—ŠŠÖŒW‚Š•K—v‚ŁA˜JŽg‹Ķ’ē‚âIgŒŲ—pA”NŒũ˜—ņ‚Č‚Į‚ĖƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚ÅŒø—Ķ‚ðƒtƒ‹‚ɏグ‚Ä‚Ŧ‚―B‚ĩ‚Đ‚ĩA–{‹Æ‚Šƒs[ƒN‚É’B‚ĩ‚―ŽžA‹ÆŽí“]Š·‚âAV‚ĩ‚Ē‚â‚č•û‚ðŽæ‚č“ü‚ę‚æ‚Ī‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƁA‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚Ė—˜ŠQ‚Š‘Š”―‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĪB

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Timxtomi, 24 January 12j

 

"Barriers to Economic Reform in Japan (2)h 

 

It was Japanese-style management itself that prevented Japanese firms from developing its new businesses by utilizing information technology. Japanese-style management had been successful in increasing efficiency to the fullest extent through its unique practices like union-management cooperation, life time employment and promotion by seniority, all of which required strong relationship of mutual trust between labor and management. But when a companyfs core business reached a peak and the company had to try changing its lines of business or whole new paradigm of looking at the business, a conflict of interests between labor and management emerged.

 

“Yí

 

"Barriers to Economic Reform in Japan (2)h 

 

It was Japanese-style management itself that prevented Japanese firms from developing itstheir new businesses by utilizing information technology. Japanese-style management had been successful in increasing efficiency to the fullest extent through its unique practices like labor union-management cooperation, life time employment and promotion by seniority, all of which required a strong relationship of mutual trust between labor and management. But when a companyfs core business reached a peak and the company had to try changing its lines of business or whole new paradigm of looking at its the business, a conflict of interests between labor and management emerged.

 

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“ā—e‚Ė‚·‚Ũ‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Barriers to Economic Reform in Japan (2)h 

 

It was Japanese-style management itself that prevented Japanese firms from developing their new businesses by utilizing information technology. Japanese-style management had been successful in increasing efficiency to the fullest extent through its unique practices like labor -management cooperation, life time employment and promotion by seniority, all of which required a strong relationship of mutual trust between labor and management. But when a companyfs core business reached a peak and the company had to try changing its lines of business or whole new paradigm of looking at its  business, a conflict of interests between labor and management emerged.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA29 October 08j

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (‚Q)

 

Japanese style management itself hampered development of new businesses that make use of new information technology. Japanese style management depends on strong labor management relations. In other words, the productivity of Japanese industries has increased by combination of labor management co-operation, lifetime employment and a seniority-based system. But after core businesses reached a peak, Japanese industries could not switch themselves to a new industrial structure or introduce new management system because those kinds of change easily led to conflict of interests among employers and employees.

 

“Yí

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (‚Q)

 

Japanese style management itself hampered development of new businesses that make use of new information technology. Japanese style management depends on strong labor- management relations. For example1, In other words, the productivity of Japanese industries has increased by a combination of good labor relations management co-operation, lifetime employment and a seniority-based salary system. But after core businesses reached a peaks, Japanese businesses2 industries could not switch to themselves to a new businesses that required a new management system3 industrial structure or introduce new management system because those kinds of changes could have easily brought up led to conflicts of interests between among employers and employees.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       strong labour-management relations‚͈ę”Ę“I‚Č‹Lq‚Č‚Ė‚ŁAin other words‚Æ‚Â‚Č‚Ū‚æ‚čA‚ą‚Ėˆę”Ę“I‚ČŠT”O‚Ė‹ï‘Ė—á‚Æ‚ĩ‚Äfor example‚Æ‚Â‚Č‚Ū‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       Å‰‚Ė•ķ‚Énew businesses‚Æ‚ ‚čA‚Ü‚―industries‚͔͈͂ŠL‚·‚Ž‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚ābusinesses‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‹ï‘Ė“I‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       •ķÍ‚Æ‘O”ž‚Æ‚ĖŠÖ˜A‚ð‚æ‚­‚·‚é‚―‚ß‚Éa new management system‚ð‚Į‚ą‚Đ‚É“ü‚ę‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁB‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č“ü‚ę•û‚Í‚Į‚Ī‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚Ī‚ЁB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Japanese style management itself hampered development of new businesses that make use of new information technology. Japanese style management depends on strong labor- management relations. For example, the productivity of Japanese industries has increased by a combination of good labor relations, lifetime employment and a seniority-based salary system. But after core businesses reached peaks, Japanese businesses could not switch to  new businesses that required a new management system because those kinds of changes could have easily brought up conflicts of interests between employers and employees.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚RiKaloA6 June 07j

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese economy (2)

 

It was Japanese management that hindered firms from making use of information technologies and expanding their businesses. Japanese management focused on establishing strong relations of trust between employers and employees, and then developed systems such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage and close cooperation between employers and employees. In fact, these systems served as the driving force for Japanese firms to achieve a higher level of productivity.

 

However, Japanese management revealed its shortcomings when firms hit a limit in their core business. Firms tried to come into another business or take a different approach to management. This change caused conflicts of interests between employers and employees but Japanese management didn't find an answer to these conflicts.  

 

“Yí

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese economy (2)

 

It was Japanese management1 that hindered firms from making use of information technologies and expanding their businesses. Japanese management focused on establishing strong relations of trust between employers and employees, and then developed systems such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage and close cooperation between employers and employees. In fact, these systems served as the driving force for Japanese firms to achieve a higher level of productivity.

 

However, Japanese management revealed its shortcomings when firms hit a limit in their core business2. Firms tried to come go into another business or take a different approach to management. This change caused a conflicts of interests between employers and employees,3 but Japanese management didn't could not find any answer to solve these conflicts.  

 

1.       Japanese management‚́u“ú–{“IŒo‰cv‚Æ‚Ē‚Īˆę”Ę“I‚Č’ŠÛ–žŽŒ‚Æ‚ĩ‚ÄŽg‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚Đ‚įŠĨŽŒ‚Í‚Ē‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņBthe Japanese management system‚Æ‚·‚é‚Ɓu‚ ‚Ė“ú–{“IŒo‰c•û–@v‚Æ‚Č‚čA’čŠĨŽŒ‚Š•t‚Ŧ‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       –{‹Æ‚ðthe core business‚Æ‚ĩ‚―‚Ė‚Í‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁB‰p•ķ‚Å‚ą‚Ė•\Œŧ‚ð—Į‚­Žg‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       but‚Ė‘OŒã‚ÅŽåŒę‚Š•Ï‚í‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ą‚Åˆę‘§“ü‚ę‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese economy (2)

 

It was Japanese management that hindered firms from making use of information technologies and expanding their businesses. Japanese management focused on establishing strong relations of trust between employers and employees, and then developed systems such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage and close cooperation between employers and employees. In fact, these systems served as the driving force for Japanese firms to achieve a higher level of productivity.

 

However, Japanese management revealed its shortcomings when firms hit a limit in their core business. Firms tried to go into another business or take a different approach to management. This change caused a conflict of interests between employers and employees, but Japanese management could not find any answer to solve these conflicts.  

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA1 March 07j

 

gObstacle to Japanese Economic Growth (2)h

 

Itfs the Japanese management style that inhibited companies to adopt new information technologies and develop new businesses. The Japanese management style based on mutual trust and some measures including cooperation between labor and management, lifelong employment and seniority enabled a whole company to work with great efficiency. However, when the companies tried to enter new business fields or employ new style of management after performance of main department of companies reached their peaks, labor and management come into conflict with their interests.

 

“Yí

 

gObstacles to Japanese Economic Growth (2)h

 

Itfs It is1 the Japanese management style itself that inhibited companies to from adopting new information technologies and developing new businesses. The Japanese management style was based on mutual trust between labour and management and mutual trust was enhanced by and some such measures as including cooperation between labor and management, lifelong employment, and seniority-based promotion and salaries2. The Japanese management system enabled a whole company to work with great efficiency. However, when the companies tried to enter into new business fields or employ a new style of management after the performance of main line of business department of companies had reached its their peaks, interests of labor and management come came into conflict each other with their interests.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       •ņ•ķ‚ł̓tƒH[ƒ}ƒ‹‚ÉIt is‚Æ‚·‚é‚Ė‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ‚ą‚ą‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Í“ā—e‚Š’·‚Ē‚Ė‚Å“Æ—§‚Ė•ķ‚É‚·‚é‚Ė‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪBThe Japanese management style based on mutual trust and ~ enabled ~.‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī\•ķ‚Å‚Íenabled‚ŠŽå“ŪŽŒ‚Å‚·‚ŠAA based B on mutual trust‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī\•ķ‚ā‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ŁAbased‚ŠŽå“ŪŽŒ‚ЂȁA‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‹^–â‚Šo‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ČŽž‚ÍThe Japanese management style that was based on mutual trust and ~‚ÆŠÖŒW‘ã–žŽŒ‚ÍČ—Š‚ĩ‚Č‚Ē‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gObstacles to Japanese Economic Growth (2)h

 

It is the Japanese management style itself that inhibited companies from adopting new information technologies and developing new businesses. The Japanese management style was based on mutual trust between labour and management and mutual trust was enhanced by such measures as cooperation between labor and management, lifelong employment, and seniority-based promotion and salaries. The Japanese management system enabled a whole company to work with great efficiency. However, when the companies tried to enter into new business fields or employ a new style of management after the main line of business had reached its peak, interests of labor and management came into conflict each other .

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚P i‚Ē‚ļ‚݁A6 Aug 03j

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (2)h

 

The Japanese management system itself prevented Japanese companies from applying information technologies to the development of new business opportunities. The Japanese management system required strong bonds between employers and employees. Cooperation between employers and employees, life-long employment, and a seniority-based promotion and remuneration system contributed to productivity improvement.

 

But when Japanese companies reached their peaks in their main lines of business and wanted to explore new lines of business, the benefits to employers became in conflict with those of employees.

 

“Yí

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (2)h

 

The Japanese management system itself prevented Japanese companies from applying information technologies to the development of new business opportunities1. The Japanese management system required –emphasized strong bonds between employers and employees., creating2 Ccooperation between employers and employees, life-long employment, and a seniority-based promotion and remuneration system. These elements of the Japanese management system2 contributed to productivity improvement.

 

But when Japanese companies reached their peaks in their main lines of business and wanted to explore new lines of business, the benefits to employers became in conflict with those of employees. The Japanese management system made it difficult to overcome this conflict3.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       uî•ņ‹Zp‚ðŠˆ—p‚ĩ‚ĐVŽ–‹Æ‚ðŠJ”­‚·‚é‚ą‚Æ‚ð‘j‚ņ‚ū—vˆö‚Í“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚ŧ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚ū‚Á‚―Bv‚ðō‚ģ‚ņ‚́u“ú–{“IŒo‰cv‚ðŽåŒę‚É‘I‚ņ‚Å•ķ‚ðŠČŒ‰‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·Bu‚`‚Í‚a‚Å‚ ‚éBv‚Í“ā—e‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ắu‚a‚Í‚`‚Å‚ ‚éBv‚ÆŒū‚ĒŠ·‚Ķ‚į‚ę‚Ü‚·B“ú–{•ķ‚Å‚Í’·‚ĒCüß‚Š–žŽŒ‚Ė‘O‚É—ˆ‚é‚Ė‚ŁAu`‚Č‚`‚Í‚a‚Å‚ ‚éBv‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪŒ`‚Ė•ķ‚Š‘―‚­‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č‚Æ‚Ŧ‚É‚Í‚a‚ŠŽåŒę‚É‚Å‚Ŧ‚é‚Đ‚Į‚Ī‚Ѝl‚Ķ‚é‚Ɖp•ķ‚Ė•\Œŧ‚ŠŠČ’P‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       u“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚́A]‹Æˆõ‚Æ‚Ė‹­‚ĒM—ŠŠÖŒW‚Š•K—v‚ŁA˜JŽg‹Ķ’ē‚âIgŒŲ—pA”NŒũ˜—ņ‚Č‚Į‚ĖƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚ÅŒø—Ķ‚ðƒtƒ‹‚ɏグ‚Ä‚Ŧ‚―Bv‚Í“ú–{Œę‚Ė“Á’Ĩ‚Ė‚ЂƂ‚ł ‚éu•ŽŒ‚Å•ķ‚ð‚Č‚ņ‚Æ‚Č‚­‘ą‚Ŋ‚év‚ð—Į‚­‚ ‚į‚í‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė•ķ‚Ė‰šü‚Ė•ŽŒu‚Łv‚Š‚ą‚Ė•ŽŒ‚Ė‘OŒã‚Ė•ķ‚ð‚Č‚ņ‚Æ‚Č‚­‘ą‚Ŋ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B‰p•ķ‚Å‚Í•ķ‚Æ•ķ‚Ė‚‚ȂŠ‚č‚ð˜_—“I‚É–ūŠm‚É‚·‚é•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

•ķ‚Æ•ķ‚Ė˜_—“I‚ČŠÖŒW‚ð–ūŠm‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚ą‚Ė“ú–{•ķ‚ð‘‚Ŧ’ž‚·‚ÆŽŸ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

·         “ú–{“IŒo‰c‚͏]‹Æˆõ‚ÆŒŲ‚ĒŽå‚Æ‚Ė‹­‚ĒM—ŠŠÖŒW‚ð•K—v‚Æ‚·‚éB

·         ‚ą‚Ė‚―‚ß‚É“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚͘JŽg‹Ķ’ē‚âIgŒŲ—pA”NŒũ˜—ņ‚𐄐i‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ŧ‚―B

·         ‚ą‚ę‚į‚Ė“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚Ė“Á’Ĩ‚͐ķŽYŦ‚ĖŒüã‚ɍvŒĢ‚ĩ‚―B

 

“Yí‚Å‚Í•ķ‚Æ•ķ‚ĖŠÖŒW‚Š–ūŠm‚É‚Č‚é‚æ‚Ī‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

3.       u‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚Ė—˜ŠQ‚Š‘Š”―‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĪBv‚́ui“ú–{“IŒo‰c‚ł́j‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚Ė—˜ŠQ‚Š‘Š”―‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Īi‚Æ‰ðŒˆ‚Š“ï‚ĩ‚Ējv‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪˆÓ–Ą‚Å‚·B“ú–{•ķ‚Å‚Í“ĮŽŌ‚Š•ķ–Ž‚Đ‚į‚í‚Đ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚ÍČ—Š‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Ī‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪŒXŒü‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‰p•ķ‚Å‚Í“ĮŽŌ‚É‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚æ‚Ī‚É‚­‚Į‚Ē‚Ų‚Į‚É“ā—e‚ð–ūŠm‚É‚·‚é•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (2)h

 

The Japanese management system prevented Japanese companies from applying information technologies to the development of new business opportunities. The Japanese management system –emphasized strong bonds between employers and employees, creating cooperation between employers and employees, life-long employment, and a seniority-based promotion and remuneration system. These elements of the Japanese management system2 contributed to productivity improvement.

 

But when Japanese companies reached their peak in their main lines of business and wanted to explore new lines of business, the benefits to employers became in conflict with those of employees. The Japanese management system made it difficult to overcome this conflict.

 

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚Tu“ú–{ŒoÏ•ÏŠv‚Ė•Įi‚Rjv

 

‚Ü‚―AŠeŠŊ’Ą‚Í‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚Ė•Š–ė‚ð•Š’SŠĮ—‚ĩAČ’ĄŠÔ‚É‚Ü‚―‚Š‚é–â‘č‚ÍČ’ĄŠÔ’ēŪ‚ÅŒˆ‚ß‚Ä‚Ē‚­Žd‘g‚Ý‚ūBŽĐ–Ŋ“}‚ĖˆÓŽvŒˆ’č‚Ė‰ß’ö‚É‚Í‘°‹cˆõ‚Ė‘ķÝ‚ā‚ ‚éB‘°‹cˆõ‚ÆŠŊ’Ą‚Š[‚­Œ‹‚Ņ‚‚ŦAŠų“ūŒ ‚âŠų‘ķ‚Ė§“x‚É‘å‚Ŧ‚Č—˜ŠQŠÖŒW‚Š‚ ‚čA•Ï‰ŧ‚ɑ΂ĩ‚Ä‹­‚­”―”­‚·‚éB‚ą‚ĖƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚͉―\”N‚ā‚Đ‚Ŋ‚āA“ú–{ŽÐ‰ï‚É’č’…‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚í‚Ŋ‚ŁA•Ï‚Ķ‚Ä‚Ē‚­‚ą‚Æ‚Í‚ŧ‚ĪŠČ’P‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĒB

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Timixtomi, 24 January 12j

 

"Barriers to Economic Reform in Japan (3)h 

 

Another problem lies in the decision making process of Japanese government. Government agencies are vertically divided and each ministry and agency administers its own areas of jurisdiction, only thinking of its sole interests. When a specific policy matter arises straddling multiple agencies, all parties involved collaborate to come up with a solution that would best preserve their vested interests. The gzoku-giinh politicians who champion the causes of special interest groups also play a role in the policy making process of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party. The zoku-giins and the government agencies are closely linked to each other to strongly oppose any changes that can erode their vested interests. This political system has long been in place in Japanese society and hence is hard to restructure.

 

“Yí

 

"Barriers to Economic Reform in Japan (3)h 

 

Another problem lies in the decision making process of Japanese government. Government agencies are vertically divided and each ministry and agency administers its own areas of jurisdiction, only thinking of its sole interests. When a specific policy matter arises straddling multiple agencies, all parties involved collaborate to come up with a solution that would will best preserve their vested interests. The gzoku-giin,h politicians who champion the causes of special interest groups, also play a role in the policy making process of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party. The zoku-giins and the government agencies are closely linked to each other to strongly oppose any changes that can erode their vested interests. This political system has long been in place in Japanese society and hence is hard to restructure change.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‚·‚Ũ‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Barriers to Economic Reform in Japan (3)h 

 

Another problem lies in the decision making process of Japanese government. Government agencies are vertically divided and each ministry and agency administers its own area of jurisdiction, only thinking of its sole interests. When a specific policy matter arises straddling multiple agencies, all parties involved collaborate to come up with a solution that will best preserve their vested interests. The gzoku-giin,h politicians who champion the causes of special interest groups, also play a role in the policy making process of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party. The zoku-giins and the government agencies are closely linked to each other to strongly oppose any changes that can erode their vested interests. This political system has long been in place in Japanese society and hence is hard to change.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA31 October 08j

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (‚R)

 

And each government offices divide the jurisdiction and administer each part. Government controls inter-office issues by discussion between offices. Law makers who work for vested interests and for their benefits hang around and interfere when the leading Liberal Demographic Party makes its decisions. Those lawmakers have close ties with certain government offices. Some groups of people have vested rights and proper interests in existing systems and hamper strongly any change. Those mechanisms have permeated into Japanese society for so many years that it is difficult to change those mechanisms.

 

“Yí

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (‚R)

 

And each the government offices divides and distributes the its jurisdiction to departments and each department administers its own area of jurisdiction each part. The Ggovernment controls inter-governmental office issues by discussions among departments between offices‚P. Law makers who work for vested interests and for their benefits hang around and interfere in the process of policy making by when the leading Liberal Demographic Party‚Q makes its decisions. Those lawmakers have close ties with certain government departments offices. Some groups of people have vested rights and proper interests in existing systems and strongly hamper strongly any change in the existing system3. This structure Those mechanisms have has permeated into Japanese society for so many years that it is difficult to change it in a short time those mechanisms.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‚Ų‚Ú‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠAÅ‰‚Ė•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č“ï‚Ē‚Å‚·B‚ą‚Ė•ķÍ‚Í•ĄŽG‚Č“ā—e‚Š’Z‚­—v–ņ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ģ‚ĉp•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚æ‚Ī‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƁA‚Į‚ą‚Ü‚Å”wŒi‚ð•â‘Ŧā–ū‚ĩ‚―‚į‚æ‚Ē‚Đ–Ā‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ˁB‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ČŽž‚́AŽĐ•Š‚Č‚č‚Ė‰ðŽß‚ð‚ĩ‚ĉp•ķ‚ɘ_—“I‚Č‹Ø‚ð’Ę‚·‚Ė‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

1.       ­•{AČ’ĄAČ’ĄŠÔ‹Ķ‹cA‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‘å‚Đ‚įŽ‚Ö‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‡˜‚ŐŪ—‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       u‘°‹cˆõ‚ÍŽĐ–Ŋ“}‚Ė­ôŒˆ’č‰ß’ö‚ɉî“ü‚·‚év‚ÆŠČ’P‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

3.       ‚ą‚ą‚́u‘°‹cˆõ‚Í‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚ĖŠŊ’Ą‚Æ“ÁŽę‚ČŒ‹‚Ņ‚‚Ŧ‚ðŽ‚ŋAŒŧó‚ð•Ï‚Ķ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚É‹­‚­”―‘΂·‚éBv‚ÆŠČ—Š‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Obstacles to Economic Reform in Japan (‚R)

 

And the government divides and distributes its jurisdiction to departments and each department administers its own area of jurisdiction. The government controls inter-governmental issues by discussions among departments. Law makers who work for vested interests and for their benefits interfere in the process of policy making by the  Liberal Demographic Party. Those lawmakers have close ties with certain government departments and strongly hamper any change in the existing system. This structure has permeated Japanese society for so many years that it is difficult to change it in a short time.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Ri‚ģ‚­‚įA3 August 07j

 

The other inhibitory factor is the system that each ministry supervises their own fields individually and they first start cooperating each other after a problem that intersects several ministries rises. And the presence of Diet member groups that have special interests in special field interrupts ways of making decisions within the Liberal Democratic Party. Those Diet member groups tie deeply with ministry officials and they have great interests in the existing system and vested rights. Therefore they oppose strongly against any change of the system. Such a system has thriven in Japanese society for dozens of years. It is not easy to change it.

 

“Yí

 

The Another1 other inhibitory factor is the bureaucratic system in that each ministry supervises their its own fields individually and several ministries they first start cooperating each other only when after a problem that intersects covers several ministries rises arises. And Also, the presence of 2special interest groups of politicians in the Diet member groups that have special interests in special field interrupts ways of making decisions within the Liberal Democratic Party. Those Diet member in the special interest groups have close ties deeply with ministry officials and they have a great deal of interests vested interests in the existing system and vested rights3. Therefore, they oppose strongly against any change of in the system. Such a political and bureaucratic system has been4 thrivening in Japanese society for dozens of years. and It is very difficult5 not easy to change it.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       ‘O‚Ė“ņ‚‚Ė—ûK–â‘č‚Ė‘ą‚Ŧ‚Å‚·‚ŠA“ú–{ƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚Ė–â‘č‚Í‚ą‚ę‚ŏI‚í‚č‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Ē‚Ė‚ÅAnother‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       The presence of interest groups is an obstacle to a rational policy making process in the Diet.‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ā‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Íspecial interest groups interrupt ways of ~‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ’žB‚Č•\Œŧ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       have a great deal of vested interest in the existing system‚Æ‚ĩ‚āAŠų‘ķ‚Ė§“x‚Ė’†‚ÉŽ‚Šų“ūŒ ‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

4.       ŒŧÝŠŪ—đisŒ`‚É‚·‚é‚Æ“ā—e‚Š‹­’ē‚ģ‚ę‚Ü‚·B

 

5.       it is not easy.‚Íit is very difficult.‚Æ•\Œŧ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š’žŲ‚Å‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Another inhibitory factor is the bureaucratic system in that each ministry supervises its own field individually and several ministries start cooperating each other only when a problem that covers several ministries arises. Also, special interest groups of politicians in the Diet interrupt ways of making decisions within the Liberal Democratic Party. Those Diet member in the special interest groups have close ties with ministry officials and have a great deal of vested interests in the existing system. Therefore, they oppose strongly against any change in the system. Such a political and bureaucratic system has been thriving in Japanese society for dozens of years and is very difficult to change.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚QiKalo, 8 June 07j

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese economy (3)

 

Similarly, there are major barriers to structural reform in the Japanese government system. For example, each ministry tries its best separately and competes fiercely with other ministries to achieve the goals of the policies they pursue. If a certain policy involves several ministries, however, these ministries cooperate to draw up a compromise policy so that each ministry can secure its own interest. In the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, lawmakers who represent the interests of specific industries has a strong influence on the decision-making process of the party. These lawmakers have close ties with certain ministries, protect the established interests of and the favorable systems for specific industries, and strongly object to any change that will lessen the influence of these lawmakers. This government system has taken root in Japanese society for decades and caused a barrier to structural reform in politics.

 

“Yí

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese eEconomy (3)

 

Similarly, there are major barriers to structural reform in the Japanese governmental system. For example, each ministry tries its best separately and competes fiercely with other ministries to achieve the its own goals of the policies they pursue1. If a certain policy involves several ministries, however, these ministries cooperate to draw up a compromise policy so that each ministry can secure its own interest. In the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, lawmakers who represent the interests of specific industries has have a strong influence on the decision-making process of the party. These lawmakers have close ties with certain ministries,. They2  protect the established interests of and the favorable systems for specific industries, and strongly object to any change that will lessen the influence of these lawmakers. This governmental system has taken root in Japanese society for decades and caused a barrier to structural reform in politics.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       “ā—e‚ɏd•Ą‚Š‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ŁA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ɑ厖‚Č‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ū‚Ŋ‚ð•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ•ķ‚Š‚·‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       ‚ą‚ą‚Đ‚įV‚ĩ‚Ē•ķ‚É‚ĩ‚āA‘O‚Ė•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŒ‹‰Ę‚ŠŽŸ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ūA‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ“Į‚Ý‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Barriers to Structural Reform in the Japanese Economy (3)

 

Similarly, there are major barriers to structural reform in the Japanese governmental system. For example, each ministry competes fiercely with other ministries to achieve its own goals. If a certain policy involves several ministries, however, these ministries cooperate to draw up a compromise policy so that each ministry can secure its own interest. In the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, lawmakers who represent the interests of specific industries have a strong influence on the decision-making process of the party. These lawmakers have close ties with certain ministries. They protect the established interests of specific industries and strongly object to any change that will lessen the influence of these lawmakers. This governmental system has taken root in Japanese society for decades and caused a barrier to structural reform in politics.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Pi‚Ē‚ļ‚݁A6 Aug 03j

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (3)h

 

Each department has its own territory for policy making. When a specific policy requires the involvement of several departments, all departments involved in the policy try to make adjustments to their own positions to come up with a policy that is satisfactory to all of them. In the decision making process of the Liberal Democratic Party, interest groups are involved. Those interest groups have strong ties with the government departments in their areas of interest and oppose any change that might reduce the benefits to the groups they represent.

 

This political system has been firmly built into Japan society over several decades and is hard to reform in the short term. 

 

“Yí

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (3)h

 

In the Japanese government1, Eeach department has its own territory for policy making. When a specific policy requires the involvement of several departments, all departments involved in the policy try to make adjustments to their own positions to come up with a policy that is satisfactory to all of them. In the decision making process of the Liberal Democratic Party, interest groups are involved. Interest groups of the Diet representative have a strong voice in the policy making process in the Liberal Democratic Party2. Those interest groups have strong ties with the government departments in their areas of interest and oppose any change that might reduce the benefits to the groups they represent.

 

This political system has been firmly built into Japan society over several decades and is hard to reform in the short term. 

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‚Ē‚ļ‚Ý‚ģ‚ņ‚́uČ’ĄŠÔ’ēŪvAu‘°‹cˆõ‚ÆŠŊ’Ą‚Š[‚­Œ‹‚Ņ‚‚Ē‚Ä‚Ē‚év‚Ė“ā—e‚ðãŽč‚ɉp•ķ‚Őā–ū‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č“ā—e‚Ė“ú–{•ķ‚ð‰p•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ‚Ŧ‚ɂ́A’N‚ð“ĮŽŌ‚É‘z’č‚·‚é‚Đ‚Å‚Į‚ę‚ū‚ŊÚ‚ĩ‚­“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ðā–ū‚·‚é‚Đ‚ŠŒˆ‚Ü‚č‚Ü‚·B“ú–{­ŽĄ‚Ėę–å‰Æ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Ēˆę”Ę‚Ė“ĮŽŌ‚ð‘z’č‚·‚é‚Æ‚Ŧ‚É‚Í‚Ē‚ļ‚Ý‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė“Še‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Ȑā–ū‚Š•K—v‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ’†‹‰–â‘č‚T‚S‚Š“ú–{Šé‹Æ‚ĖˆÓŽvŒˆ’č‚Ė–â‘č‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė–â‘č‚Š­•{‚ĖˆÓŽvŒˆ’č‚Ė–â‘č‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įAIn the Japanese government‚ð‚Ē‚ę‚Ä‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚Æ‚ģ‚đ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

2.       “ā—e‚ð­‚ĩā–ū“I‚É‚ĩ‚āAinterest groups‚ð•ķ‚ĖÅ‰‚É‚Ļ‚Ē‚āAŽŸ‚Ė•ķ‚Æ‚ĖŠÖ˜A‚ð‚æ‚­‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gBarriers to Economic Reform in Japan (3)h

 

In the Japanese government, each department has its own territory for policy making. When a specific policy requires the involvement of several departments, all departments involved in the policy try to make adjustments to their own positions to come up with a policy that is satisfactory to all of them. Interest groups of the Diet representative have a strong voice in the policy making process in the Liberal Democratic Party. Those interest groups have strong ties with the government departments in their areas of interest and oppose any change that might reduce the benefits to the groups they represent.

 

This political system has been firmly built into Japan society over several decades and is hard to reform in the short term. 

 

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚UuƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚Å‚Ėî•ņŒŸõ•û–@v

 

ƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒgã‚Å–Ú“I‚Ėî•ņ‚ð’T‚·‚Æ‚Ŧ‚́AŒŸõƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“‚ð—˜—p‚·‚é‚Ė‚ŠŠî–{BŒŸõƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“‚ð‘å‚Ŧ‚­•Š‚Ŋ‚é‚ƁA“o˜^‚ĩ‚―ƒz[ƒ€ƒy[ƒW‚ðƒe[ƒ}•Ę‚É•Š—Þ‚ĩ‚Äˆę——•\ŽĶ‚·‚éuƒfƒBƒŒƒNƒgƒŠ[Œ^v‚ƁAŒŸõƒƒ{ƒbƒg‚ƌĂ΂ę‚éƒvƒƒOƒ‰ƒ€‚ŠƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ð„‰ņ‚ĩAƒL[ƒ[ƒh‚ÉŠY“–‚·‚éƒy[ƒW‚ð’T‚ĩo‚·uƒƒ{ƒbƒgŒ^v‚Ė‚QŽí—Þ‚Š‚ ‚éB

 

ƒfƒBƒŒƒNƒgƒŠ[Œ^‚́Aƒz[ƒ€ƒy[ƒW‚Ėˆę‚ˆę‚‚ɒZ‚ĒÐ‰î•ķ‚Š•t‚Ē‚Ä‚Ē‚āAƒy[ƒW‚Ė“ā—e‚Šˆę–Ú‚Å‚í‚Đ‚é‚æ‚Ī‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚éBŒöŽŪƒz[ƒ€ƒy[ƒW‚ð’T‚ĩ‚―‚Ē‚Æ‚Ŧ‚âAˆę‚‚Ėƒe[ƒ}‚Å‚Ü‚Æ‚Ü‚Á‚―î•ņƒy[ƒW‚ð’T‚ĩ‚―‚Ē‚Æ‚Ŧ‚É•Ö—˜‚ūBˆę•ûAƒƒ{ƒbƒgŒ^‚̓fƒBƒŒƒNƒgƒŠ[Œ^‚Æ”ä‚Ũ‚é‚ÆŒŸõ‚ģ‚ę‚éƒqƒbƒgŒ”‚Š”ņí‚É‘―‚Ē‚―‚߁A•Ą”‚ĖƒL[ƒ[ƒh‚ÅŒŸõ‚ĩ‚―‚Ē‚Æ‚Ŧ‚âA’Z‚Ē•ķAŒÅ—L–žŽŒ‚Č‚Į‚Å’ē‚Ũ‚―‚Ē‚Æ‚Ŧ–𗧂B

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Timxtomi, 7 February 12j

 

"How to Search for Information on the Interneth

 

When you search for specific information on the Internet, naturally you are to use a search engine. There are two major types of search engine: "the directory type" and "the robot type". The directory type engine displays a list of registered homepages classified by theme, while the robot type goes through the internet and finds homepages that include the keywords you designated. The directory type carries a brief explanatory note on each homepage to facilitate your understanding on its contents. As such, it is convenient for searching for a specific home page or home pages of a specific subject. The robot type tends to find out much more homepages with a key word than the directory type. You may want to use this type when you try to find home pages using multiple key words, short sentences or proper names.

 

“Yí

 

"How to Search for Information on the Interneth

 

When you search for specific information on the Internet, naturally you are to use a search engine. There are two major types of search engines: "the directory type" and "the robot type". The directory type engine displays a list of registered homepages classified by theme, while the robot type goes through the internet and finds homepages that include the keywords you have designated. The directory type carries a brief explanatory note on each homepage to facilitate your understanding on its contents. As such, it is convenient for searching for a specific home page or home pages of a specific subject. The robot type tends to find out much more homepages with a key word than the directory type. You may want to use this type when you try to find home pages using multiple key words, short sentences or proper names.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"How to Search for Information on the Interneth

 

When you search for specific information on the Internet, naturally you are to use a search engine. There are two major types of search engines: "the directory type" and "the robot type". The directory type engine displays a list of registered homepages classified by theme, while the robot type goes through the internet and finds homepages that include the keywords you have designated. The directory type carries a brief explanatory note on each homepage to facilitate your understanding on its contents. As such, it is convenient for searching for a specific home page or home pages of a specific subject. The robot type tends to find out much more homepages with a key word than the directory type. You may want to use this type when you try to find home pages using multiple key words, short sentences or proper names.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA6 November 08j

 

The way of searching information by the internet

 

A search engine is a basic tool to search for some information on the internet. Search engines are divided into two groups; one is ga directory typeh, which shows a list of registered homepages classified by theme; another is ga robot typeh, which runs through the net to find homepages that includes certain key words. The directory type also shows short explanation for each homepage that helps you to understand it at a glance. Thatfs convenient to find official-homepages or information pages related to a theme. The robot type shows much larger number of homepages than the directory type dose. Thatfs helpful to find homepages with plural key words, short phrases or proper nouns.

 

“Yí

 

The Two ways of searching for information on by the internet

 

A search engine1 is a the basic tool to search for some information on the internet. Search engines are divided into two groups; one is ga directory typeh, which shows a list of registered homepages classified by theme; another the other is ga robot typeh, which runs through the internet to find homepages that includes certain key words. The directory type also shows a short explanation for of each homepage that helps you to understand its contents it at a glance. Thatfs This2 is convenient to find official -homepages or homepages on a certain kind of information pages related to a theme. The robot type3 shows can find a much larger number of homepages than the directory type dose. Thatfs This is helpful to find homepages with plural key words, short phrases or proper nouns.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ‚ą‚ą‚ł̓T[ƒ`ƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“ˆę”Ę‚Č‚Ė‚Åa search engineAŽŸ‚Ė•ķ‚Å‚Í‚―‚­‚ģ‚ņ—L‚éƒT[ƒ`ƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“‚ŠŽåŒę‚Č‚Ė‚Åsearch engines‚Å‚·‚ˁB

 

2.       this‚ą‚ęAthat‚ ‚ęA‚Í“ú–{Œę‚Æ“Ŋ‚ķ‚æ‚Ī‚É‹——Ģ“IAS—“I‚͉“‹ßŠī‚ðŽĶ‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Í‘O‚Ė•ķ‚Őā–ū‚ĩ‚―Ž–•ŋ‚ð‚ģ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Åthis‚Š“KØ‚Å‚·B

 

3.       “ú–{•ķ‚Ɂuˆę•ûA`v‚Æ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‰p•ķ‚ÅSearch engines are divided into two groups;‚Ɛā–ū‚ĩ‚Ä‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė•ķ‚ĖŽn‚Ü‚č‚Ɂuˆę•ûv‚É“–‚―‚éŒū—t‚Í‚Ē‚į‚Č‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB“ņ‚‚Ė•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ð”äŠr‚ĩ‚Ä‘ą‚Ŋ‚éÚ‘ą‹å‚É‚ÍOn one hand ~. On the other hand ~. At the same time ~. while ~.‚Č‚Į‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·‚Đ‚įA—á•ķ‚ÅŽg‚Ē•û‚ð’ē‚Ũ‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Two ways of searching for information on the internet

 

A search engine is the basic tool to search for information on the internet. Search engines are divided into two groups; one is ga directory typeh, which shows a list of registered homepages classified by theme; the other is ga robot typeh, which runs through the internet to find homepages that includes certain key words. The directory type also shows a short explanation of each homepage that helps you to understand its contents at a glance. This is convenient to find official homepages or homepages on a certain kind of information. The robot type can find a much larger number of homepages than the directory type. This is helpful to find homepages with plural key words, short phrases or proper nouns.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚RiP&C, 23 July 08j

 

"The Ways to Search Informations in the Internet"

 

When you search informations which you want to get in the Internet, you use basically search engines. You can roughly classify search engines into two types : "the directory type" and "the robot type". The former programs classify homepages which are registered in the Internet into every themes and table them. The latter called "search robot programs" round the Internet and locate pages which include your keywords.

 

The directory type programs put short notices on each homepages and enable you to measure contents of pages at a glance. When you search official homepages or information pages which address one theme, the directory type engines are useful. On the other hand, the robot type programs locate excessively more pages as pages which you search than the directory type. When you search homepages with plural keywords, short sentences, and proper nous, the robot type engines are useful.

 

“Yí

 

"The Ways to Search for Informations Information on in the Internet"

 

When you search for informations information which you want to get1 in on the Internet, you use basically a search engines2. You can roughly classify search engines into two types : "the directory type" and "the robot type". The directory type3 former programs classifyies homepages which are registered in the Internet into every themes and tables them. The robot type latter is called a "search robot programs" and goes round the Internet and locates homepages with which include your keywords.

 

The directory type programs puts a short note on the contents of notices on each homepages and enables you to understand the measure contents of pages at a glance. The directory type is useful4 Wwhen you search for official homepages or homepages information pages which address one theme, the directory type engines are useful. On the other hand, the robot type programs locates much excessively more pages with a key word as pages which you search than the directory type. So, the robot type is useful Wwhen you search for homepages with plural keywords, short sentences, and proper nousnouns, the robot type engines are useful.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       search information which you want to get‚Å‚Íwhich you want to get‚Ísearch information‚Ė’†‚ÉŠÜ‚Ü‚ę‚é“ā—e‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įČ—Š‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       ŽĀÛ‚É‚Í‚Ē‚ë‚Ē‚ë‚̓T[ƒ`ƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“‚ðŽg‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚ł̓T[ƒ`ƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“ˆę”Ę‚ðŒū‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Å’P”‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       the former, the latter‚ðŽg‚í‚ļ‚Éthe directory type, the robot type‚Æ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁB

 

4.       ]‘Ūß‚ðŽåß‚Ė‘O‚É‚·‚é‚ĐŒã‚ë‚É‚·‚é‚Ђ́A‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚Ė•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚É‚æ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Íthe directory type‚Æthe robot type‚Ė”äŠr‚Č‚Ė‚ŁAŽåß‚ðæ‚É‚ĩ‚Đæ‚ļ‚Í‚Į‚ŋ‚į‚ĖƒT[ƒ`ƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“‚Å‚ ‚é‚Đ‚ð‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ģ‚đ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"The Ways to Search for Information on the Internet"

 

When you search for information on the Internet, you use a search engine. You can roughly classify search engines into two types: "the directory type" and "the robot type". The directory type classifies homepages into every theme and tables them. The robot type is called a "search robot " and goes round the Internet and locates homepages with your keyword.

 

The directory type puts a short note on the contents of each homepage and enables you to understand the contents at a glance. The directory type is useful when you search for official homepages or homepages which address one theme. On the other hand, the robot type  locates much more pages with a key word than the directory type. So, the robot type is useful when you search for homepages with plural keywords, short sentences, and proper nouns.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA4 August 07j

 

When you try to get information from the Internet, the basic way is using search engines. There are two major styles for searching the Internet. One is "Directory style gin which all homepages are registered into categories and a search engine sorts out them all and shows you its result. The other one is "Robot style" in which a program called a searching robot moves around the Internet and finds WebPages that match your keywords. The "directory style" shows a short introducing passage of each web page and so you can know what is posted in the web page. It is useful when you want to get to an official web page or a informational page on a certain theme. On the other hand, "Robot style" is convenient when you have some combination of keywords or short phrases, or proper nouns because a "Robot style" search engine hits an enormous number of WebPages compared with "Directory style".

 

“Yí

 

When you try to get information from the Internet, the basic way is using a search engines. There are two major styles types of search engine1 for searching the Internet. One is "a Ddirectory style type g in which all homepages are registered according to the content of homepage2 into categories and a the search engine sorts out them out to find homepages with a topic you want all and shows you its result. The other one is a "Rrobot type style" in which a program called a searching robot moves around the Internet and finds WebPages homepages that match include your keywords.

 

The "directory styletype" shows a short introducing introductory passage of each web page homepage so that and so you can know what is posted in the homepage web page. It is useful when you want to get go to an official homepage web page or any homepage informational page on with a certain theme. On the other hand, the "Rrobot type style" is convenient when you have some a certain combination of keywords or short phrases, or proper nouns because a "Robot style" the search engine hits an enormous number of WebPages homepages in comparison compared with a search with the "Ddirectory type style".

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       “ņŽí—Þ‚ĖŒŸõƒGƒ“ƒWƒ“‚Š‚ ‚éA‚Æ“ú–{•ķ‚É‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ʼnp•ķ‚Å‚ā‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‹Lq‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       homepage, web page‚Ė‹æ•Ę‚ÍŠm’č‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚đ‚ņ‚ŠAhomepage ‚Í‚ ‚éƒgƒsƒbƒN‚ɂ‚Ē‚Ä‚Ėweb site iweb page‚ĖW‡j‚ĖÅ‰‚Ėƒy[ƒWAweb page‚͌X‚Ėƒy[ƒW‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·Bhomepage‚Í‚ą‚Ėweb site‚ĖŠT—Š‚â“ā—e‚ð‹Lq‚ĩ‚―‚ā‚Ė‚Š‘―‚Ē‚Ė‚ŁAweb site‚Ė‘ã‚í‚č‚Éhomepage‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Š‘―‚Ē‚Å‚·B‚ą‚Ė–â‘č—á‚Å‚Íhomepage‚Å“ˆę‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

When you try to get information from the Internet, the basic way is using a search engine. There are two major types of search engine. One is "a directory type g in which all homepages are registered according to the content of homepage and the search engine sorts them out to find homepages with a topic you want . The other one is a "robot type " in which a program called a searching robot moves around the Internet and finds homepages that include your keywords.

 

The "directory type" shows a short introductory passage of each homepage so that you can know what is posted in the homepage. It is useful when you want to go to an official homepage or any homepage with a certain theme. On the other hand, the "robot type" is convenient when you have a certain combination of keywords or short phrases, or proper nouns because the search engine hits an enormous number of homepages in comparison  with a search with the "directory type".

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚PiKanki, 29 July 03j

 

gHow to Search for Information on the Interneth

 

If you want to search for information on the Internet, you can use a search engine. There are two types of search engine: a directory type and a search robot type. The directory type lists homepages according to the content of homepages. The search robot type searches for a homepage which has a specific keyword.

 

When you use a directory type search engine, you will see the homepages you find have brief notes on their contents. It is convenient to use this type when you are looking for a specific homepage or homepages with a specific content. When you use a search robot type, you can find much more homepages with a specific keyword. It is useful to use this type when you search for homepages with more than one keywords, a short sentence, or a proper noun.

 

“Yí

 

gHow to Search for Information on the Interneth

 

If you want to search for information on the Internet, you can use a search engine. There are two types of search engine1: a directory type and a search robot type. The directory type lists homepages according to the content of homepages. The search robot type searches for a homepage which has a specific keyword.

 

When you use a directory type search engine, you will see the homepages you find have with brief notes on their contents. It is convenient to use this type when you are looking for a specific homepage or homepages with a specific content2.

 

When you use a search robot type, you can find much many more homepages with a specific keyword. It is useful to use this type when you search for homepages with more than one keywords, a short sentence, or a proper noun.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

Kanki‚ģ‚ņ‚Í•ķÍ‚ĖŽåŒę‚ðyou‚É“ˆę‚·‚é‚ą‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚āA•ķÍ‘S‘Ė‚ĖŽ‹“_‚ðŒÅ’č‚ĩ‚Ä“ā—e‚ð‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B•ĻŽ–‚ĖŽč’i‚Ėā–ū‚É‚Íyou‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚·‚é‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•û–@‚Š—LŒø‚Å‚·B

 

1.       “ú–{•ķ‚ĖÅ‰‚Ė’i—Ž‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŪ—‚Š—Į‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁB‚ą‚Ė’i—Ž‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Ē‚­‚‚ЂĖŽ–•ŋ‚ð•Ā‚Ũ‚Đā–ū‚ĩ‚Ä‚ ‚é•ķ‚ł́AKanki‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É•Ā‚Ũ‚Ä‚ ‚鎖•ŋ‚͉―‚Đ‚ð‚Ü‚ļ‘‚ŦA•ķ‚ð•Ï‚Ķ‚Ä‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚ðā–ū‚·‚é‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       “ú–{•ķ‚ł͂ЂƂ‚Ė’i—Ž‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‰pŒę‚Å‚Í“ā—e‚Đ‚įŒĐ‚Ä“ņ‚‚ɕŠ‚Ŋ‚į‚ę‚Ü‚·B‰p•ķ‚Ė’i—Ž‚Í‚Č‚é‚Ũ‚­’Z‚Ē‚Ų‚Ī‚Š“ā—e“I‚É‚āŽ‹Šo“I‚É‚ā“Į‚Ý‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gHow to Search for Information on the Interneth

 

If you want to search for information on the Internet, you can use a search engine. There are two types of search engine: a directory type and a search robot type. The directory type lists homepages according to the content of homepages. The search robot type searches for a homepage which has a specific keyword.

 

When you use a directory type search engine, you will see homepages with brief notes on their contents. It is convenient to use this type when you are looking for a specific homepage or homepages with a specific content.

 

When you use a search robot type, you can find many more homepages with a specific keyword. It is useful to use this type when you search for homepages with more than one keyword, a short sentence, or a proper noun.

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚VuƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg—˜—pã‚Ė’ˆÓ@i‚Pjv

 

‚ą‚ą””NAƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚Ė—˜—pŽŌ”‚Í”š”­“I‚É‘‰Á‚ĩA‰ä‚Š‘‚Å‚ĖƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚Ė—˜—pŽŌ”‚āˆęį–œl‚ð’ī‚Ķ‚―‚Æ‚Ē‚í‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·BÅ‹ß‚́A‰SŽŌ‚Å‚āŠČ’P‚ÉŽg‚Ķ‚éƒ\ƒtƒg‚â“ü–发‚ā‘―‚­A’N‚Å‚āŠČ’P‚ɃCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ĖĒŠE‚É“ü‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚­‚ą‚Æ‚Š‚Å‚Ŧ‚é‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ŧ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

‚ĩ‚Đ‚ĩAˆę•û‚ł̓Cƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚Ė—˜—p‚É‚æ‚éƒgƒ‰ƒuƒ‹‚ā‘‰Á‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·Bu’N‚Å‚āŽQ‰Á‚Å‚Ŧ‚év‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Ƃ́A‹t‚ÉŒū‚Ķ‚΁u‚Į‚ņ‚Ȑl‚ŠŽQ‰Á‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Đ‚í‚Đ‚į‚Č‚Ēv‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚ā‚ ‚čA[‚Č”íŠQ‚ā‹N‚Ŧ‚Ä‚Ļ‚čA\•Š’ˆÓ‚·‚é•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

ƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ð‰õ“K‚É—˜—p‚·‚é‚―‚߂ɂ́A–ģ—p‚Čƒgƒ‰ƒuƒ‹‚ÉŠŠ‚Ŧž‚Ü‚ę‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Ė‚Č‚Ē‚æ‚Ī‚ɃCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg—˜—p‚Ė‚―‚ß‚ĖŠî–{“I‚ČŽĐŒČ–h‰q–@‚ð’m‚Á‚Ä‚Ļ‚­•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Vimxtomi, 7 February 12j

 

"Warnings for Internet Users (1)"

 

The past few years have seen an explosive increase in the number of Internet users. The number of Internet users in Japan is said to have exceeded 10 million. Now various user-friendly software and introductory books are readily available, facilitating starters to get into the world of the Internet. At the same time, an increasing number of troubles are taking place on the Internet as well. The Internet is open to anyone. To put it another way, there can be lots of people with malicious intent on the Internet. In fact, some serious incidents have been reported. So you canft be overcautious about the Internet security. You need to have basic skills of self-protection from vulnerability of the Internet, if you are to enjoy it without being involved in unnecessary troubles.

 

“Yí

 

"Warnings for Internet Users (1)"

 

The past few years have seen an explosive increase in the number of Internet users. The number of Internet users in Japan is said to have exceeded 10 million. Now various user-friendly software and introductory books are readily available, facilitating starters to get into the world of the Internet. At the same time, an increasing number of troubles are taking place on the Internet as well. The Internet is open to anyone. To put it another way, there can be lots of people with malicious intent on the Internet. In fact, some serious incidents have been reported. So you canft be overcautious about the Internet security. You need to have basic skills of self-protection from vulnerability of the Internet, if you are to enjoy it without being involved in unnecessary troubles.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B“Yí‰ÓŠ‚Í‚ ‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņB

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚UiKalo, 28 October 10j

 

"Advice on Using the Internet (1)h

 

For the past few years, the number of Internet users has been explosively increasing in the world and its number has exceeded 10 million in Japan. Now, there are computer software and books available for beginners. This enables anyone to get into the world of the Internet.

 

However, more and more users are getting involved in trouble. The fact that anyone can join the Internet means that they donft know who on earth is on the Internet.

 

Serious damage has been reported, so you should be careful when you use the Internet. To avoid unnecessary trouble, you need to know at least how to protect yourself online.

 

“Yí

 

"Advice on Using the Internet (1)h

 

For the past few years, the number of Internet users has been explosively increasing in the world and its number has1 exceeded 10 million in Japan. Now, there are computer software and books available for beginners. This enables anyone to get into the world of the Internet.

 

However, more and more users are getting involved in trouble. The fact that anyone can join the Internet means that they nobody2 donft knows who on earth are is really on the Internet.

 

Some Sserious incidents damage3 has have been reported, so you should be careful when you use the Internet. To avoid unnecessary trouble, you need to know at least how to protect yourself onlineon the Internet.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       •ķ‚Ė‘O”ž‚ĖŽåŒę‚Šthe number of Internet users‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įA‚ą‚ĖŽåŒę‚ŠŒã”ž‚É‚ā‚Đ‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       Žåß‚Éanyone can join‚Æ’P”‚ĖŽåŒę‚ŠŽg‚í‚ę‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ą‚ā’P”‚É‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       damage”íŠQ‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚Æ‚ą‚Ė”íŠQ‚ð‹N‚ą‚ĩ‚―‚ā‚Ė‚Š‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ŧ‚Ė‚Ų‚Ī‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚·‚é‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Advice on Using the Internet (1)h

 

For the past few years, the number of Internet users has been explosively increasing in the world and exceeded 10 million in Japan. Now, there are computer software and books available for beginners. This enables anyone to get into the world of the Internet.

 

However, more and more users are getting involved in trouble. The fact that anyone can join the Internet means that nobody knows who are really on the Internet.

 

Some serious incidents have been reported, so you should be careful when you use the Internet. To avoid unnecessary trouble, you need to know at least how to protect yourself on the Internet.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Ti‚ ‚·‚ЁA27 January 10j

 

"Warnings about Using the Internet (1)h

 

Over the past years, the number of internet users has increased rapidly. It is said that Japanese internet users have reached over more than ten million people. Nowadays, even internet beginners can easily explore the internet world because there are many published guides for beginners to learn how to use the internet and user-friendly software programs to help further. However, the troubles of people using internet are increasing.  "Everyone can connect to the internet" implies "you don't know who is on the internet. In fact, victims of serious internet crimes are reported so you have to be careful when you use it. To enjoy using the internet, you need to know the internet basics of self-defence, such as not to get into trouble online.

 

“Yí

 

"Warnings about Using the Internet (1)h

 

Over the past years, the number of internet users has increased rapidly. It is said that Japanese internet users have reached over more than ten million people. Nowadays, even internet beginners can easily explore the internet world because there are both many published guides for beginners to learn how to use the internet and user-friendly software programs to help them further. However, the troubles of people find themselves in on the internet1 using internet are also increasing in number.  "Everyone can connect to the internet" implies "yYou don't know who is on the interneth. In fact, victims of serious internet crimes on the internet are reported. sSo2 you have to be careful when you use the internet it. To enjoy using the internet, you need to know how to protect yourself on the internet3 basics of self-defence, such as not to get into trouble online.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       the troubles of people using internet are increasing‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƁA‚ą‚ę‚į‚Ėƒgƒ‰ƒuƒ‹‚ŠƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚É‚Į‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Đ‚æ‚­‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņB“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚·‚é‚ƁAƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒgã‚Ėƒgƒ‰ƒuƒ‹A‚Æ‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       ‚ą‚ą‚Đ‚įV‚ĩ‚Ē•ķ‚É‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚ŠAŽŸ‚Ė•ķ‚Æ‚ĖŠÖ˜A‚Š‚æ‚­‚Č‚é‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       uƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg—˜—p‚Ė‚―‚ß‚ĖŠî–{“I‚ČŽĐŒČ–h‰q–@‚ð’m‚Á‚Ä‚Ļ‚­•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·v‚Í“ā—e‚Ė­‚Č‚Ē“ú–{•ķ‚Č‚Ė‚Å“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ČŠČ’P‚Č•\Œŧ‚Å‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Warnings about Using the Internet (1)h

 

Over the past years, the number of internet users has increased rapidly. It is said that Japanese internet users have reached over ten million people. Nowadays, even internet beginners can easily explore the internet world because there are both many guides for beginners to learn how to use the internet and user-friendly software programs to help them further. However, troubles people find themselves in on the internet are also increasing in number. "Everyone can connect to the internet" implies "You don't know who is on the interneth. In fact, serious crimes on the internet are reported. So you have to be careful when you use the internet . To enjoy the internet, you need to know how to protect yourself on the internet.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA9 November 08j

 

Cautions for using the internet

 

In these years, internet users have explosively increased. It is said that the total number of internet users exceeded ten million. There are recently so many kinds of software for internet beginners and abecedarian that anybody can easily use the internet. But at the same time troubles have increased on the internet. That everyone can use the internet means that you do not know what kinds of people use the internet. And some users have actually suffered serious damages. Now, therefore, you need to be careful for using the internet. In order to feel comfortable on the internet, you have to know the basic skills to protect yourself and prevent from needless troubles.

 

“Yí

 

Cautions when for using the internet

 

In these years, the number of internet users has have explosively increased. It is said that the total number of internet users exceededs ten million. There are recently so many kinds of computer programs1 software and books for internet beginners and abecedarian that anybody can easily use the internet. But at the same time, the number of troubles has been have increaseding on the internet. That everyone can use the internet means that you do not know what kinds of people use the internet2. And some users have actually suffered serious damages on the internet. Now, tTherefore, you need to be careful for when using the internet. In order to feel comfortable on the internet, you have to know the basic skills to protect yourself and prevent avoid from needless troubles.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ƒRƒ“ƒsƒ…[ƒ^EƒvƒƒOƒ‰ƒ€‚ð“ú–{Œę‚Å‚Í ƒ\ƒtƒg‚ÆŒū‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠAhardware vs. software‚ňę”Ę‚É‚ÍžB–†‚Č•\Œŧ‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įAcomputer programs‚Æ–ūŠm‚É•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Ė‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       u’N‚Å‚āŽQ‰Á‚Å‚Ŧ‚éA‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Ƃ́A‹t‚ÉŒū‚Ķ‚΁A‚Į‚ņ‚Ȑl‚ŠŽQ‰Á‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Đ‚í‚Đ‚į‚Č‚ĒA‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚ā‚ ‚éBv‚Í“ā—e‚ðŽæ‚ę‚Š‚Ē‚ë‚Ē‚ë‚Č•\Œŧ‚Š‚Å‚Ŧ‚é‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪBu‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąv‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė•\Œŧ‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚·BAlmost anyone can use the Internet. This means that you donft know whom you meet on the Internet. Anonymity on the Internet fosters crimes and presents potential danger to innocent users.

 

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Caution when using the internet

 

In these years, the number of internet users has explosively increased. It is said that the total number of internet users exceeds ten million. There are recently so many kinds of computer programs and books for internet beginners that anybody can easily use the internet. But at the same time, the number of troubles has been increasing on the internet. That everyone can use the internet means that you do not know what kinds of people use the internet. And some users have actually suffered serious damage on the internet.  Therefore, you need to be careful when using the internet. In order to feel comfortable on the internet, you have to know basic skills to protect yourself and avoid needless troubles.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚RiP&C, 24 July 08j

 

"Regards at Using the Internet (1)"

 

The number of users of the Internet has been exploding in recent years. It is said that the number of the users in Japan has exceeded 10 million. Recently many softwears which beginners can use easily and many beginner's books appear on the market. So, anyone has been able to go easily into the world of the Internet. However, troubles with using the Internet has been increasing. That anyone can enter the Internet is , in other words, that any users don't know who enters the Internet. And even serious damages has occurred. The users need to pay regard to using the Internet adequately. To use the Internet comfortably and to avoid getting oneself into unnecessary troubles, the users need to know basic way of self-defence at using the Internet. 

 

“Yí

 

"Warnings Regards at Using the for Internet Users (1)"

 

The number of Internet users of the Internet has been exploding in recent years. It is said that the number of the users in Japan has exceeded 10 million. Recently, many softwear softwares and books for Internet1 which beginners can use easily and many beginner's books have appeared on the market. So, anyone can has been able to go easily start using into the world of the Internet2. However, trebles the number of troubles related to the use with using of the Internet has been increasing too. That anyone can enter use the Internet means is , in other words, that nobody any users don't knows who are on enters the Internet. And this anonymity has already caused2 even serious damages to some Internet users has occurred. Internet The users need to be very careful when pay regard to using the Internet adequately. To use the Internet comfortably and to avoid getting oneself into unnecessary troubles, the users need to know basic skills way of self-defence for at using the Internet. 

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė—ûK–â‘č‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ČŒûŒę‘Ė‚Ė“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ð‰p•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Ė‚Í“ï‚ĩ‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁB•ķ‚Š‚ū‚į‚ū‚į‚Æ‘ą‚­ŒXŒü‚Š‚ ‚čA“ā—e‚Ėd•Ą‚ā‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č“ú–{•ķ‚ð‰pŒę‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ‚Ŧ‚́A“ú–{•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ėd“_‚ū‚Ŋ‚ðŪ—‚ĩ‚ď‘‚Ŧ’ž‚ĩ‚Ä‚Đ‚įA‰p•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

1.       hardware, software‚ƈę‘΂ĖŒū—t‚ŏW‡–žŽŒ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ĉĩ‚Ē‚Ü‚·Bsoftware‚ū‚Ŋ‚Å‚Í–{—ˆƒRƒ“ƒsƒ…[ƒ^‚ĖƒvƒƒOƒ‰ƒ€‚āˆÓ–Ą‚Í‚ ‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņ‚ŠA•ķ–Ž‚Đ‚įƒvƒƒOƒ‰ƒ€‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·BŦŠi‚É‚Ícomputer programs‚Æ•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Ȑā–ū‚ð‰Á‚Ķ‚é‚ƁA‘O‚Ė•ķ‚Æ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŠÖ˜A‚Š‚æ‚­‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Warnings for Internet Users (1)"

 

The number of Internet users has been exploding in recent years. It is said that the number of the users in Japan has exceeded 10 million. Recently, many software and books for Internet beginners have appeared on the market. So, anyone can easily start using the Internet. However, the number of troubles related to the use of the Internet has been increasing too. That anyone can use the Internet means that nobody knows who are on  the Internet. And this anonymity has already caused serious damages to some Internet users . Internet users need to be very careful when using the Internet. To avoid  unnecessary troubles, the users need to know basic skills of self-defence for the Internet. 

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA8 August 07j

 

"note for Internet use"

 

For the past few years, the number of the Internet users has explosively increased and it is said that there are more than ten million Internet users in Japan. These days, many software and books for beginner are available and they make everyone get into the world of the Internet easily. But more and more troubles have been caused with the Internet. gEveryone can joinh conversely means gYou donft know who they areh. As serious offensives have happened relating to the Internet, you should use the Internet deliberately. To use the Internet comfortable and not to get involved unnecessary trouble, you need to know basic self-defensive usage on the Internet.

 

“Yí

 

"note Warnings1 for Internet uUsers"

 

 

For the past few years, the number of the Internet users has explosively increased and it is said that there are now more than ten million Internet users in Japan. These days, many software and books for beginner are available and they make help everyone get into the world of the Internet easily. But more and more troubles have been caused with are taking place on the Internet. gEveryone can join the Interneth implies conversely means gYou donft know who they are on the Interneth. As some of troubles on the Internet are very serious2 offensives have happened relating to the Internet, you should carefully use the Internet deliberately. To use the Internet comfortable and not to get involved in unnecessary troubles, you need to know the basics of self-protection defensive usage3 on the Internet.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       •ķÍ‚Ė“ā—e‚Đ‚įŒĐ‚ÄwarningsŒx‚Æ‚·‚é‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

2.       ‘O‚Ė•ķ‚ŃCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚Å‚Ė–â‘č‚Š‘―”­‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚éA‚Æ‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ę‚ÆŠÖ˜A‚ĩ‚Ä“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       uŠî–{“I‚ČŽĐŒČ–h‰q–@v‚́uŽĐŒČ–h‰q–@‚ĖŠî–{v‚Æ‚·‚é‚Ɖp•ķ•\Œŧ‚ŠŠČ’P‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Warnings for Internet Users"

 

 

For the past few years, the number of the Internet users has explosively increased and it is said that there are now more than ten million Internet users in Japan. These days, many software and books for beginner are available and they help everyone get into the world of the Internet easily. But more and more troubles are taking place on the Internet. gEveryone can join the Interneth implies gYou donft know who they are on the Interneth. As some of troubles on the Internet are very serious, you should carefully use the Internet. To use the Internet comfortable and not to get involved in unnecessary troubles, you need to know the basics of self-protection on the Internet.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚PiKurume, 6 Aug 03j

 

gWarnings for Using the Internet (1)h

 

Over the last several years, the number of Internet users increased explosively in Japan and has reached more than 10 million people. Now there are many software and introductory books for the Internet and it is easy for anyone to enter into the world of the Internet.

 

But at the same time, an increasing number of Internet users get involved in a trouble. Anyone can use the Internet, and this implies that you donft know who is really using the Internet. This anonymity of Internet users is often a cause of many troubles, some of them are very serious, on the Internet. You should be aware of potential problems of using the Internet.

 

In order to use the Internet trouble-free, you should be familiar with the basic of self-protection on the Internet.

 

“Yí

 

gWarnings for about Using the Internet (1)h

 

Over the last several years, the number of Internet users has increased explosively in Japan and has reached more than 10 million people. Now there are many software and introductory books for the Internet and it is easy for anyone to enter into the world of the Internet beginners to start using the Internet1.

 

But at At the same time, an increasing number of Internet users get involved in a trouble. Since Aanyone can use the Internet, and this implies that2 you donft know who is really using the Internet there2. This anonymity of Internet users is often a cause of many troubles problems, some of them are 2very serious, on the Internet2. When using the Internet, Yyou should be aware of these potential problems and be familiar with the basics of self-protection. of using the Internet3.

 

In order to use the Internet trouble-free, you should be familiar with the basic of self-protection on the Internet.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       u’N‚Å‚āƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ĖĒŠE‚É“ü‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚­Bv‚Ífor anyone to enter into the world of the Internet‚Å‚ā‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA’ŠÛ“I‚Å‚Ē‚ë‚Ē‚ë‚ČˆÓ–Ą‚ÉŽæ‚ę‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Í•ķ–Ž‚Đ‚įu‰SŽŌ‚ŠƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ðŽg‚ĒŽn‚ß‚év‚ą‚Æ‚Č‚Ė‚Å‹ï‘Ė“I‚É for beginners to start using the Internet‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

2.       d•Ą‚ðČ—Š‚ĩ‚Ä•ķ‚ðŠČ’P‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

3.       “ú–{•ķ‚ł͐V‚ĩ‚Ē’i—Ž‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠA“ā—e“I‚É‚Í‚Q”Ô–Ú‚Ė’i—Ž‚ĖÅŒã‚Ė•”•Š‚Æ‚Â‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁA“ņ‚‚Ė•ķ‚ð‚ЂƂ‚ɂĩ‚ÂȂŠ‚č‚ð‚æ‚­‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gWarnings about Using the Internet (1)h

 

Over the last several years, the number of Internet users has increased explosively in Japan and has reached more than 10 million people. Now there are many software and introductory books for the Internet and it is easy for beginners to start using the Internet.

 

At the same time, an increasing number of Internet users get in trouble. Since anyone can use the Internet, you donft know who is really there. This anonymity of Internet users is often a cause of many problems, some of them very serious. When using the Internet, you should be aware of these potential problems and be familiar with the basics of self-protection.

 

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚WuƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg—˜—pã‚Ė’ˆÓ@i‚Qjv

 

ƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ÍŠČ’P‚ɏî•ņ‚ĖŒð—Ž‚â‹Ī—L‚Š‰Â”\‚Å‚·‚ŠA“ŊŽž‚É—˜—p‚ɍۂĩ‚Ä‚ÍŽĐŒČÓ”C‚ĖŒī‘Ĩ‚ð‚í‚Ŧ‚Ü‚Ķ‚é•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B‚Ü‚ļƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ð—˜—p‚ĩ‚―î•ņ‚Ė”­MŽŌ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĖÓ”C‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

–@—Ĩ‚Å‹ÖŽ~‚ģ‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚ésˆŨ‚́AŒī‘Ĩ‚Æ‚ĩ‚ăCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚É‚Ļ‚Ē‚Ä‚āˆá–@‚Å‚·B‚Ü‚―Aˆá–@‚Å‚Č‚Ēę‡‚āA—LŠQ‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚ĩ‚āA”ņ“ï‚ģ‚ę‚é“™‚ĖŽÐ‰ï“I§Ų‚ðŽó‚Ŋ‚éę‡‚ā‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·Bî•ņ”­M‚ɍۂĩ‚ẮA”­M‚É”š‚Č‚ĪÓ”C‚ƃŠƒXƒN‚ð[•Š”FŽŊ‚ĩ‚Č‚Ŋ‚ę‚΂Ȃč‚Ü‚đ‚ņB

 

‚Ü‚―î•ņ‚ĖŽóMŽŌ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚āAƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒgã‚Ėî•ņ‚Ė’†‚ɂ͐M—ŠŦ‚Ė’á‚Ē‚ā‚Ė‚â”ƍߐŦ‚Ė‚ ‚é‚ā‚Ė‚ā‚ ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚ðŽĐŠo‚ĩA”íŠQ‚É‘˜‚í‚Č‚Ē‚æ‚Ī‚ÉŽĐŒČ–h‰q‚É“w‚ß‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š•K—v‚Å‚·B

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Timxtomi, 7 February 12j

 

"Warnings for Internet Users (2)"

 

You can readily exchange/share information through the Internet. However, you have to recognize the principle of self-responsibility when using the Internet. First of all, you have a responsibility as a sender of the information through the Internet. In principle, activities prohibited by law are prohibited also on the internet. Even when the activities are not illegal, they may be considered harmful and you may be subject to social punishment from other internet users. When you transmit the information, you must be fully cognizant of responsibilities and risks inherent in the sender of the information. Second, as a recipient of the information, you should also be aware of the fact that the information on the Internet contains lots of poor quality information including the one with malicious intent and stay alert to possible dangers from such vulnerabilities.

 

“Yí

 

"Warnings for Internet Users (2)"

 

You can readily exchange/share information through the Internet. However, you have to recognize the principle of self-responsibility when using the Internet. First of all, you have a responsibility as a sender of the information through the Internet. In principle, activities prohibited by law are also prohibited also on the internet. Even when the activities are not illegal, they may be considered harmful to others and you may be subject to social punishment from other internet users. When you transmit the information, you must be fully cognizant of responsibilities and risks inherent in the sender of the information. Second, as a recipient of the information, you should also be aware of the fact that the information on the Internet contains lots of poor quality information including the one with malicious intent and you should1 stay alert to possible dangers from such vulnerabilities.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ‘O‚Éyou should‚Đ‚į‘å•Š—Ģ‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁAyou should‚ðŒJ‚č•Ô‚·‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Warnings for Internet Users (2)"

 

You can readily exchange/share information through the Internet. However, you have to recognize the principle of self-responsibility when using the Internet. First of all, you have responsibility as a sender of the information through the Internet. In principle, activities prohibited by law are also prohibited on the internet. Even when the activities are not illegal, they may be considered harmful to others and you may be subject to social punishment from other internet users. When you transmit information, you must be fully cognizant of responsibilities and risks inherent in the sender of the information. Second, as a recipient of information, you should also be aware of the fact that information on the Internet contains lots of poor quality information including the one with malicious intent and you should stay alert to possible dangers from such vulnerabilities.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚SiKalo, 1 November 10j

 

"Advice on Using the Internet (2)h

 

You can easily exchange and share information with others on the Internet, but when you use the Internet, you need to follow the principle of self-responsibility.

 

First, you need to be responsible for the information you send through the Internet. Any action that is banned by law is also illegal on the Internet. Even if not illegal, you will face social sanctions such as being criticized because it is harmful. You need to be fully aware of the risk and responsibility arising from sending information through the Internet.

 

Second, you need to be careful of the information you receive though the Internet. Some of the information can be unreliable or play a part in a crime. To avoid being involved in damage on the Internet, you should protect yourself on your own.

 

“Yí

 

"Advice on Using the Internet (2)h

 

You can easily exchange and share information with others on the Internet, but when you use the Internet, you need to follow the principle of self-responsibility.

 

First, you need to be responsible for the 1 information you send through the Internet. Any action that is banned by law is also illegal on the Internet. Even if when it is not illegal, you may will face social sanctions such as being criticized on the Internet because your information it is harmful. Therefore, Yyou need to be fully aware of the risk and responsibility arising from sending information through the Internet.

 

Second, you need to be careful of the information you receive though the Internet. It Some of the information can be unreliable or even be play a part in of a crime criminal scheme. To avoid trouble being involved in damage on the Internet, you should protect yourself on your own precaution.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       information you send‚Å‚ā‚Ü‚ūˆę”Ę“I‚Å‚·‚Đ‚į’čŠĨŽŒ‚ð‚‚Ŋ‚Ü‚đ‚ņB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

"Advice on Using the Internet (2)h

 

You can easily exchange and share information with others on the Internet, but when you use the Internet, you need to follow the principle of self-responsibility.

 

First, you need to be responsible for information you send through the Internet. Any action that is banned by law is also illegal on the Internet. Even when it is not illegal, you may  face social sanctions such as being criticized on the Internet because your information is harmful. Therefore, you need to be fully aware of the risk and responsibility arising from sending information through the Internet.

 

Second, you need to be careful of information you receive though the Internet. It can be unreliable or even be a part of a criminal scheme. To avoid trouble on the Internet, you should protect yourself on your own precaution.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Si‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA14 November 08j

 

Cautions when using the internet i‚Qj

 

The internet enables you easily to communicate and share information with other users. And at the same time, you need to know the principle of self-responsibility when using the internet. First of all, you have responsibility as a sender of information on the internet.

 

In principle, any illegal behavior outside of the internet is also illegal on the internet. And you will be punished socially, such as being blamed that your behavior is noxious, even though your behavior is not obviously illegal. This is why you really need to know the responsibility and risk when releasing information. Also, as a receiver of information, you have to make an effort to avoid damages because some information on the internet is unreliable or even criminal.

 

“Yí

 

Cautions1 when using the internet i‚Qj

 

The internet enables you easily to communicate and share information with other users. But And at the same time2, you need to know the principle of self-responsibility when using the internet. First of all, you have responsibility as a sender of information on the internet.

 

In principle, any illegal behavior in society outside of the internet is also illegal on the internet. Moreover, And you may will be punished socially, such as being blamed that your behavior is obnoxious3, even though your behavior is not obviously illegal. This is why you really need to know the responsibility and risk when releasing information on the internet. Also, as a receiver of information, you have to make an effort to avoid damages because some pieces of information on the internet is are unreliable or even criminal.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B“Į‚Ý‚â‚·‚Ē•ķÍ‚Ė\Ž‚Å‚·B

 

1.       caution‚Í•s‰ÁŽZ–žŽŒ‚Å‚·B

 

2.       uƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ĖŽg—p‚Í‘å•Ï‚â‚ģ‚ĩ‚ĒB‚ĩ‚Đ‚ĩA’ˆÓ‚Š•K—v‚Å‚ ‚éBv‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‘ą‚Ŧ•û‚Č‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ą‚Íand‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­but‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       u—LŠQ‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚ĩ‚āA”ņ“ï‚ģ‚ę‚é“™‚ĖŽÐ‰ï“I§Ų‚ðŽó‚Ŋ‚éę‡‚ā‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·Bv‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‰p•ķ•\Œŧ‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚·‚ˁBÅ‹ß‚͎Љï“I§Ų‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚æ‚č’†A”î掂Š–â‘č‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ˁB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Caution when using the internet i‚Qj

 

The internet enables you easily to communicate and share information with other users. But you need to know the principle of self-responsibility when using the internet. First of all, you have responsibility as a sender of information on the internet.

 

In principle, any illegal behavior in society is also illegal on the internet. Moreover, you may  be punished socially, such as being blamed that your behavior is obnoxious, even though your behavior is not obviously illegal. This is why you really need to know the responsibility and risk when releasing information on the internet. Also, as a receiver of information, you have to make an effort to avoid damage because some pieces of information on the internet are unreliable or even criminal.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚RiP&C, 27 July 08j

 

Warnings for Internet Users (2)

 

When using the Internet, anyone can easily interchange informations with other users. But anyone needs to use the Internet at his own risk. General illegal acts are as a rule illgal on the Internet, too. When some Internet users perform not illegal acts but harmful acts, they often apply social sanctions against their selves, for example they are criticized. When users send informations, they take their responsibilities into consideration. When users receive informations, they take into consideration that some informations on the Internet are unreliable or criminal. Receivers need to defend one selves to avoid damages.

 

“Yí

 

Warnings for Internet Users (2)

 

When using the Internet, anyone can easily interchange exchange informations1 with other users. But anyone needs to use the Internet at his own risk. Generally illegal acts are also as a rule illgal illegal on the Internet, too. When some Internet users perform acts that are not illegal acts but harmful to other Internet users acts, they often face apply social sanctions on the Internet against their selves, for example they are criticized. When Internet users send informations to others, they have to take their responsibilities for their actions into consideration. When Internet users receive informations, they take into consideration that some pieces of informations on the Internet are unreliable or criminal. Information Rreceivers need to defend themselves one selves to from such information to avoid damages.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       information  ‚Í”ņ‰ÁŽZ–žŽŒ‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įs‚Å•Ą”Œ`‚É‚Í‚Č‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņBmuch information, many pieces of information‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚ĩ‚Ä—Ę‚ð •\‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Warnings for Internet Users (2)

 

When using the Internet, anyone can easily exchange information with other users. But anyone needs to use the Internet at his own risk. Generally illegal acts are also illegal on the Internet. When some Internet users perform acts that are not illegal but harmful to other Internet users, they often face social sanctions on the Internet. When Internet users send information to others, they have to take responsibilities for their actions. When Internet users receive information, they take into consideration that some pieces of information on the Internet are unreliable or criminal. Information receivers need to defend themselves from such information to avoid damages.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA10 August 07j

 

gWarnings for Internet Users (2)h

 

The Internet allows you to share and exchange information, while it requires to submit to a principle of self-responsibility. First, as a sender of information, you should take a responsibility what you send through the Internet. A deed against laws is banned on the Internet as well. Even if it was not an illegal action, you could get social sanctions such as blames and criticism due to the degree of its harmfulness. You need to fully recognize risk and responsibility accompanied with sending information to the Internet. Second, as a receiver of information, you need to keep in mind that some information on the Internet is unreliable and even has criminality. You should protect yourself not to get involved in any trouble.

 

“Yí

 

gWarnings for Internet Users (2)h

 

The Internet allows you to share and exchange information,. In doing so1, however, you must exercise while it requires to submit to a the principle of self-responsibility. First, as a sender of information, you should take a the responsibility for what you send through the Internet. A deed against laws is banned on the Internet as well. Even if it was is not an illegal action, you could may get social sanctions such as blames complaints and criticism due2 that your action or information is to the degree of its harmfulness to society. Therefore3, Yyou need to fully recognize the risk and responsibility accompanied with sending information to the Internet. Second, as a receiver of information, you need to keep in mind that some information on the Internet is unreliable and even has contains some elements with criminality criminal intentions4. You should protect yourself not to get involved in any trouble on the Internet.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       while the Internet requires you to submit to the principle of self-responsibility‚Æ‚·‚é‚ą‚Æ‚āo—ˆ‚Ü‚·‚ŠA–ģ‹@Žŋ‚Čthe Internet‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚·‚é‚æ‚čA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Éyou‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‹ï‘Ė“I‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       due to ~@‚ɂ‚Ē‚Ä‚ÍCollins COBUILD, English Usage‚ÉŽŸ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Ȑā–ū‚ŠÚ‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

If an event is due to something, it happens or exists as a direct result of it. An example: His death was due to natural causes.

 

Due to is sometimes used to introduce the reason for an undesirable situation. An example: Due to repairs, the garage will be closed next Saturday. This use is fairly common, but some people object to it. Instead of saying due to, you can say owing to or because of.

 

ã‚Ė–â‘č‚Ídue to‚Ė“ņ”Ô–Ú‚Ė—p–@‚Å‚·Byou may get social sanctions due to harmful effects of your action or information on the Internet.‚Æ•\Œŧ‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ü‚·‚ŠA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Écriticism‚Ė“ā—e‚ðthatß‚Őā–ū‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       Šų‚ɁA‚ą‚Ė“ā—e‚Əd•Ą‚·‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š•ķ‘‚ɏo‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė•ķ‚ðČ—Š‚·‚é‚ЁA‚Ü‚―‚Í‚ą‚Ė˜_“_‚Ė‘Ę–Ú‰Ÿ‚ĩ‚Æ‚ĩ‚ÄTherefore‚Å•ķ‚ðŽn‚ß‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

4.       “Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ɏ­‚ĩ‹ï‘Ė“I‚É‹Lq‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gWarnings for Internet Users (2)h

 

The Internet allows you to share and exchange information. In doing so, however, you must exercise the principle of self-responsibility. First, as a sender of information, you should take the responsibility for what you send through the Internet. A deed against laws is banned on the Internet as well. Even if it is not an illegal action, you may get social sanctions such as complaints and criticism that your action or information is harmful to society. Therefore, you need to fully recognize the risk and responsibility accompanied with sending information to the Internet. Second, as a receiver of information, you need to keep in mind that some information on the Internet is unreliable and even contains some elements with criminal intentions. You should protect yourself not to get involved in any trouble on the Internet.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚PiKurume, 12 Aug 03j

 

"Warnings for Using the Internet (2)"

 

You can use the Internet to exchange and share information with others. But if you do so, you should keep in mind that you are responsible to protect yourself.

 

Anything that is prohibited by law is also prohibited on the Internet. Even if it is not prohibited, you will receive social sanctions when it hurts others. When you pass information on the Internet, you should be always aware of potential risks that your information may inflict on you.

 

When you receive information on the Internet, you should be aware that some information may not reliable at all or may contain some elements with criminal intentions. Again, it is important to exercise good judgment to protect yourself.

 

“Yí

 

gWarnings for about Using the Internet (2)h

 

You can use the Internet to exchange and share information with others. Bbut if you do so, you should keep in mind that you are responsible to for protecting yourself1.

 

Anything that is prohibited by law illegal in our daily life2 is also prohibited illegal on the Internet. Even if it is not prohibited illegal, it may be harmful to others on the Internet. If you pass on this kind of information on the Internet, you may receive complaints from other Internet users. you will receive social sanctions when it hurts others3. When you pass on information on the Internet, you should be always aware of the potential risks that your information may inflict on you.

 

When you receive information on the Internet, you should be aware that some information may not be reliable at all or may contain some elements with criminal intentions. Again, it is important to exercise good judgment to protect yourself.

 

 ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       Kurume‚ģ‚ņ‚͉p•ķ‚ĖŽåŒę‚ðyou‚Å“ˆę‚ĩ‚Ä•ķÍ‘S‘Ė‚ð‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B“ú–{•ķ‚ĖÅ‰‚Ė•”•ŠAuƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg‚ÍŠČ’P‚ɏî•ņ‚ĖŒð—Ž‚â‹Ī—L‚Š‰Â”\‚Å‚·v‚ÍŒĐ‚Đ‚Ŋã‚ĖŽåŒęAuƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒgv‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚ĩ‚Ä The Internet makes it easy to exchange and share information with others.‚Æ‚ā•\Œŧ‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ü‚·‚ŠAyou ‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚ŠŒã‚Ė•ķ‚Æ‚Ė‘ą‚Ŧ‚Š‚â‚ģ‚ĩ‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       u–@—Ĩ‚Å‹ÖŽ~‚ģ‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚ésˆŨv‚Íanything that is illegal in our daily life‚Æ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚ŠŠČ’P‚Å‚·BIn our daily life‚ÍŽŸ‚Ėon the Internet‚ƑΔ䂷‚é‚æ‚Ī‚É“ü‚ę‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

3.       uŽÐ‰ï“I§Ųv‚͈ӖĄ‚Ė”͈͂ŠL‚·‚Ž‚ÄžB–†‚Č‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Í‹ï‘Ė“I‚Ɂu‘ž‚ĖƒCƒ“ƒ^[ƒlƒbƒg—˜—pŽŌ‚Đ‚į‹ęî‚Š—ˆ‚év‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―BuŽÐ‰ï“I§Ųv‚ĖˆÓ–Ą‚ð‹·‚­Žæ‚č‚·‚Ž‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Đ‚ā’m‚ę‚Ü‚đ‚ņ‚ŠA‰p•ķ‚Å‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚Č‚Æ‚Ŧ‚É‚Í’ŠÛ“I‚æ‚č‹ï‘Ė“I‚Č•\Œŧ‚Ė•û‚ðd‚ņ‚ķ‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gWarnings about Using the Internet (2)h

 

You can use the Internet to exchange and share information with others but if you do so, you should keep in mind that you are responsible for protecting yourself1.

 

Anything that is illegal in our daily life is also illegal on the Internet. Even if it is not illegal, it may be harmful to others on the Internet. If you pass on this kind of information on the Internet, you may receive complaints from other Internet users. When you pass on information on the Internet, you should be always aware of the potential risks that your information may inflict on you.

 

When you receive information on the Internet, you should be aware that some information may not be reliable at all or may contain some elements with criminal intentions. Again, it is important to exercise good judgment to protect yourself.

 

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚T‚XuŽq‹Ÿ‚Ė”ōs‹@‰^’Āv

 

Žq‹Ÿ‚Ė”ōs‹@‘ã‚͍‘“āü‚Í‚QÎ‚Ü‚Å–ģ—ŋ‚Å‚·‚ŠA‘Ûü‚Å‚Í—L—ŋ‚Å‚·B‘Ûü‚Å‚Í‚QÎ–Ē–ž‚ð—cŽ™A2Î`12Î‚Ü‚Å‚ðŽq‹Ÿ‚ƌĂŅ‚Ü‚·B12Î’ī‚Í‘ålˆĩ‚Ē‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“Ŋs‚·‚é‘ål‚Š•’ʉ^’Ā‚ð•Ĩ‚Īę‡‚́A—cŽ™‚ɐȂðŽæ‚į‚ļ‘ål‚Ė‚Ђī‚Ėã‚ɍĀ‚į‚đ‚éę‡‚Í‘ål•’ʉ^’Ā‚Ė‚P‚O“A•Ę‚ɐȂð‚Æ‚éę‡‚Í‘ål•’ʉ^’Ā‚Ė‚V‚T“AŽq‹Ÿ‚Í‘ål•’Ę—ŋ‹ā‚Ė‚V‚T“‚Å‚·B

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Timxtomi, 15 February 12j

 

"Airfare for Childrenh

 

Although children under the age of three are not charged airfare on domestic flights, they are subject to the fare on international flights. On the international flights, children under the age of two are categorized ash infantsh and those between 2 to 12 are categorized as gchildrenh. Those who are older than 12 are treated as adults. When an accompanying adult in the coach class sits an infant on his or her lap without getting a seat, the fare for the infant is 10% of the adult fare. If the adult gets a seat for the infant, 75% of the adult fare will be applied. The 75% of the adult fare is also applied to all gchildren

 

“Yí

 

"Airfare for Childrenh

 

Although children under the age of three are not charged airfare on domestic flights, they are subject to a the fare on international flights. On the international flights, children under the age of two are categorized ash infantsh and those between 2 and to 12 are categorized as gchildrenh. Those who are older than 12 are treated as adults. When an accompanying adult in the economy coach class sits an infant on his or her lap without getting an extra seat, the fare for the infant is 10% of the adult fare. If the adult gets a seat for the infant, 75% of the adult fare will be applied. This The 75% of the adult fare rule is also applied to all gchildrenh.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Airfare for Childrenh

 

Although children under the age of three are not charged airfare on domestic flights, they are subject to a fare on international flights. On the international flights, children under the age of two are categorized ash infantsh and those between 2 and 12 are categorized as gchildrenh. Those who are older than 12 are treated as adults. When an accompanying adult in the economy class sits an infant on his or her lap without getting an extra seat, the fare for the infant is 10% of the adult fare. If the adult gets a seat for the infant, 75% of the adult fare will be applied. This 75% of the adult fare rule is also applied to all gchildrenh.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚SiKalo, 1 November 10j

 

"Airfare for Childrenh

 

Children less than three years old can travel free on domestic flights but not on international flights. On international flights, children under two years old are called infants, while children between 2 and 12 years old are called children. Children aged 12 and older are categorized as adults.

 

A child under two years old pays;

 

1.        10 percent of the adult fare if the child sits on a paying traveler lap and doesnft take up a whole seat, or

 

2.        75 percent of the adult fare if the child takes up a whole seat.

 

A child aged twelve and older pays 75 percent of the adult fare.

 

“Yí

 

"Airfares for Childrenh

 

Children less equal to or under1 than two three years old can travel free on domestic flights but not on international flights. On international flights, children under two years old are called ginfantsh2, while children between 2 and 12 years old are called gchildrenh. Children over aged 12 years old and older are categorized as adults.

 

For international flights, A an ginfanth child under two years old pays;

 

1.        10 percent of the adult fare if it the child sits on a parentfs paying traveler lap and doesnft take up a whole seat, or but pays

 

2.        75 percent of the adult fare if it3 sits on its own seat the child takes up a whole seat.

 

A  gchildh aged twelve and older pays 75 percent of the adult fare.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŠT—Š‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA”N—î‚É‚æ‚é—ŋ‹ā‚Ėˆá‚Ē‚Š•Š‚Đ‚č“ï‚Ē‚Å‚·B

 

1.       “ú–{Œę‚ĖuˆČ‰švAuˆČãv‚Ė•\Œŧ‚ÍžB–†V–ū‰ðŽŦ“T‚É‚æ‚ę‚΁uˆČ‰š‚́k”—Ę‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é•\Œŧ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Í Œĩ–§‚É‚Í ‚ŧ‚Ė”—Ę‚ðŠÜ‚Þ‚ŠAˆę”Ę‚É‚Í•K‚ļ‚ĩ‚ā‚ŧ‚Ī‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Ēlv‚Æ‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B@‚ŧ‚Ė‚―‚߁A–â‘č‚Ė“ú–{Œę‚Å‚ÍˆČ‰š‚ðŽg‚í‚ļ‚É–Ē–ž‚ðŽg‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·Bu–Ē–žv‚Í‚ŧ‚Ė”—ĘŽĐ‘Ė‚ÍŠÜ‚Ý‚Ü‚đ‚ņB

‚ą‚Ė–â‘č‚Å‚ÍŽq‹Ÿ‚Ė”N—î‚ÍŽŸ‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‹æØ‚į‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

‘“āü‚ł́u‚QÎ‚܂Łv‚Í‚QÎ‚āŠÜ‚Þ‚Ė‚ŁAchildren equal and under two years old

 

‘Ûü‚ł́u‚QÎ–Ē–žv‚Í‚QÎ‚ðŠÜ‚Ü‚Č‚Ē‚Ė‚Åchildren under two years old

u‚QÎ`‚P‚QÎ‚܂Łv‚Íchildren between 2 and 12 years old

u‚P‚QÎ’īv‚Í‚P‚QÎ‚ðŠÜ‚Ü‚Č‚Ē‚Ė‚Åchildren over 12 years old‚Å‚·B

 

2.       ‚ą‚Ė–â‘č‚Ėinfant‚Æchild‚Í“ÁŽę‚ČŽg‚Ē•û‚Č‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚·‚é‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       —cŽ™‚Í‚Ü‚ūŦ•Ę‚Š–ģ‚Ē‚Æ‚ĩ‚Äit‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Airfares for Childrenh

 

Children equal to or under two years old can travel free on domestic flights but not on international flights. On international flights, children under two years old are called ginfantsh, while children between 2 and 12 years old are called gchildrenh. Children over 12 years old  are categorized as adults.

 

For international flights, an ginfanth pays 10 percent of the adult fare if it sits on a parentfs   but pays 75 percent of the adult fare if it sits on its own seat. A gchildh pays 75 percent of the adult fare.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Ri‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA18 November 08j

 

Air fares for children

 

Air fares for children two years old or younger are free on domestic flights but are charged for on international flights. On international flights, children below two years old are called ginfantsh. Children between two years old and twelve years old are called gchildrenh. Children older than twelve years old are taken as an adult.

 

On international flights, an ginfanth who dose not occupies a seat pays ten percent of the regular adult fare when he or she is accompanies by an adult who pays a regular fare and he or she sits in the lap of the adult. And an ginfanth who occupies a seat pays seventy-five percent of the regular adult fare. A gchildh pays seventy-five percent of the regular adult fare.

 

“Yí

 

Air fares for children

 

Air fares for children two years old or younger are free on domestic flights but are charged for on international flights. On international flights, children below two years old are called ginfantsh. Children between two years old and twelve years old are called gchildrenh. Children older than twelve years old are taken regarded as an adults.

 

On international flights, if an ginfanth who dose not occupiesy a seat and sits on the lap of its parent who pays ten percent of the regular adult fare when he or she is accompanies by an adult who pays a regular fare, the infant pays ten percent of the regular adult fare and he or she sits in the lap of the adult. But if And an ginfanth who occupies a seat, then the infant pays seventy-five percent of the regular adult fare1. A gchildh pays seventy-five percent of the regular adult fare.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·Bu‚QÎ–Ē‚Í‚ð—cŽ™A‚QÎ`‚P‚QÎ‚Í‚ðŽq‹ŸA‚P‚QÎ’ī‚Í‘ålv‚Ė”N—î‹æ•Š‚Ė•\Œŧ‚ŠģŠm‚Å‚·B

 

(1)   u“Ŋs‚·‚é‘ål‚Š•’ʉ^’Ā‚ð•Ĩ‚Īę‡‚́A—cŽ™‚ɐȂðŽæ‚į‚ļ‘ål‚Ė‚Ђī‚Ėã‚ɍĀ‚į‚đ‚éę‡‚Í‘ål•’ʉ^’Ā‚Ė‚P‚O“A•Ę‚ɐȂð‚Æ‚éę‡‚Í‘ål•’ʉ^’Ā‚Ė‚V‚T“v‚Í—ŋ‹ā‚ĖðŒ‚Č‚Ė‚ŐģŠm‚Å‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē•\Œŧ‚Š•K—v‚Å‚·‚ˁBi‚Pj—cŽ™‚ŠČ‚ðŽæ‚éę‡Ai‚Qj—cŽ™‚ŠČ‚ðŽæ‚į‚Č‚Ēę‡A‚Ė“ņ‚‚Šd—v‚Č‹æ•Ę‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·Bu—cŽ™‚ŠČ‚ðŽæ‚į‚Č‚ĒH‚Į‚Ī‚ĩ‚āHv‚Ė‹^–â‚ðŽŸ‚Éā–ū‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪBIf an infant takes its own seat, it pays 75 percent of an adult fare. If an infant does not take its own seat and sits on the lap of its parent, it pays only 10 percent of the regular adult fare.‚ŠŠČ’P‚Č•\Œŧ‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB“ú–{•ķ‚ł́uČ‚ðŽæ‚į‚Č‚Ēę‡v‚Šæ‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠAuČ‚ð‚Æ‚éę‡v‚ðæ‚É‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB‚Ē‚ë‚Ē‚ë‚ČðŒ‚ð–ž‚―‚·‚Æ‚Ŧ‚É‚ą‚Ī‚Č‚éA‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•\ŽĶ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ŧ‚É‚Í‰Óð‘‚Ŧ‚Š—LŒø‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

On international flights, an infant pays 10 percent of a regular adult fare, if

(1)   an infant is below two years old,

(2)   an infant does not take its own seat,

(3)   an infant sits on the lap of its parent, and

(4)   its parent pays a regular adult fare.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA19 August 07j

 

"Child Flight Fareh

 

Flight fare for a child under two-year old is free for domestic flight, but not for international flight. The fare system of international flight classifies child flight fare into three categories according to age: 1)hinfanth for under two-year old; 2)hchildh for 2-12 years old; 3)hadulth for over twelve-year old. Under the condition of fully paid for an adult accompanying with the child, the fare for a gchildh is 10 percent of the adult fare if the child doesnft occupy a seat by sitting on the lap of the adult, while 75 percent of the adult fare if the child fully occupies a seat. It means that child flight fare is 75 percent of the adult flight fare.

 

“Yí

 

"Child Flight Fareh

 

The Fflight fare for a child under two -years old is free for domestic flights, but not for international flights. The fare system of international flight classifies children2 flight fare into three categories according to age: 1)hinfantsh for children under two- years old; 2) hchildrenh for 2-12 years old; and 3) hadultsh for children over twelve- years old. If an infant is accompanied by an adult who pays a regular fare Under the condition of fully paid for an adult accompanying with the child1, the fare for the infant a gchildh is 10 percent of the adult fare when if the infant child doesnft occupy a seat and by sitting sits on the lap of the adult,, while The fare for the infant, however, is3 75 percent of the adult fare when if the infant child fully occupies his or her a seat. Children between two to twelve years old 4pay It means that child flight fare is 75 percent of the adult flight fare1.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       ‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŠT—Š‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‚í‚Đ‚į‚Č‚Ē‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B”ōs‹@—ŋ‹ā‚Ėā–ū‚Č‚Ė‚ŁA’N‚Š‚Ē‚­‚į•Ĩ‚Ī‚Đ–ūŠm‚É‚í‚Đ‚é‚æ‚Ī‚É‚·‚é•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·BUnder the condition of fully paid for an adult accompanying with the child‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚͍\•ķ‚Š‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚đ‚ņBIt means that child flight fare is 75 percent of the adult flight fare.‚́AŠų‚Ɂhchildh‚Í‚V‚T“•Ĩ‚Ī‚Æ‘O‚Ė•ķ‚ɏo‚Ä‚­‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Ü‚―o‚Ä‚­‚é‚Ė‚͉―ŒĖ‚ЂȁA‚Æ‚Ļ‚ā‚Ē‚Ü‚·BgŽq‹Ÿh‚ðŽO‚‚ɕŠ—Þ‚ĩ‚―‚Ė‚Š‚Æ‚Ä‚ā‚æ‚Ē‚Ė‚ŁA‚ŧ‚Ė•Š—Þ‚ðŽg‚ĒAwhile 75 percent of the adult fare if the child infant fully occupies a seat.‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƍŽ—‚ð‰ņ”ð‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       Žq‹Ÿ‚ðŽO‚‚ĖƒNƒ‰ƒX‚É•Š—Þ‚·‚éA‚Æ‚ĩ‚―‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       V‚ĩ‚Ē•ķ‚É‚ĩ‚ÄThe fare for the infant, however, is ~‚Æ‚·‚é‚ƁA‘O‚Ė•ķ‚ÆŠÖ˜A‚Š‚ ‚芎‚“ā—e‚ĖˆŲ‚Č‚é‚ą‚Æ‚ðŒū‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚éA‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

4.       Žq‹Ÿ‚Ė”N—î‚ð“ü‚ę‚é‚Æ“ā—e‚Š‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

The flight fare for a child under two years old is free for domestic flights but not for international flights. The fare system of international flight classifies children into three categories: 1)hinfantsh for children under two years old; 2) hchildrenh for 2-12 years old; and 3) hadultsh for children over twelve years old. If an infant is accompanied by an adult who pays a regular fare, the fare for the infant is10 percent of the adult fare when the infant  doesnft occupy a seat and sits on the lap of the adult. The fare for the infant, however, is 75 percent of the adult fare when the infant fully occupies his or her seat. Children between two to twelve years old pay 75 percent of the adult fare.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Pimum, 29 July 03j

 

gAirplane Fares for Childrenh

 

Children up to two years old are free on domestic flights but not free on international flights. In international flights, children under two are called infants and children from two to 12 years old are called children. Children over 12 years old are treated as an adult.

 

On international flights, when an adult accompanying an infant pays a regular fare and the infant sit on his or her lap, then the infant pays 10 percent of the regular adult fare. When the infant sits on its own seat, he pays 75 percent of the regular adult fare. A child pays 75 percent of the regular adult fare.

 

“Yí

 

gAirplane Fares for Childrenh

 

Children up to two years old are free on domestic flights1 but not free on international flights. In On international flights, children under two are called ginfants2h and children from two to 12 years old are called gchildrenh. Children over 12 years old are treated as an gadulth.

 

On international flights, when an adult accompanying an infant pays a regular fare and lets3 the infant sit on his or her lap, then the infant pays4 10 percent of the regular adult fare. When the infant sits on its own seat, he or she5 pays 75 percent of the regular adult fare. A child also pays 75 percent of the regular adult fare.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

’Z‚Ē“ú–{•ķ‚Å‚·‚ŠA‚Ē‚ë‚Ē‚ë‚ȍq‹ó—ŋ‹ā‚Š‚Å‚Ä‚­‚é‚Ė‚ŁAģŠm‚É‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‰p•ķ‚Å•\Œŧ‚·‚é•K—v‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·Bmum‚ģ‚ņ‚Í‚ŧ‚ę‚ž‚ę‚Ėq‹ó—ŋ‹ā‚Ėę‡‚ð•Ę‚Ė•ķ‚É‚ĩ‚ďãŽč‚ɏî•ņ‚ðˆ—‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       uŽq‹Ÿv‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚ĩ‚―‚Ė‚Å•ķ‚ŠŠČŒ‰‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B‚ā‚Æ‚Ė“ú–{•ķ‚Ɉø‚Ŧ‚ļ‚į‚ę‚Ä Airfares for children up to two years old are free on domestic flights. ‚æ‚č‚æ‚Ē‚ÆŽv‚Ē‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       ‘Ûü‚Ėq‹ó—ŋ‹ā‚Ė‚―‚ß‚Ė“Á•Ę‚Č’č‹`‚Č‚Ė‚ŁAh~h‚Å‚­‚­‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

3.       lets‚ð“ü‚ę‚é‚Æwhen‚Ė’†‚ĖŽåŒę‚Šan adult‚É“ˆę‚Å‚Ŧ‚Ä‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

4.       ŽĀÛ‚É—ŋ‹ā‚ð•Ĩ‚Ī‚Ė‚͐e‚Å‚·‚ŠAthe infant‚ðŽåŒę‚É‚·‚ę‚΁A‘ž‚Ė•ķ‚ĖŽåŒę‚Æ•Ā—ņ\‘Ē‚É‚Č‚é‚Ė‚Å“ĮŽŌ‚É‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

5.       Infant‚Í’†Ŧ‚Å‚·‚Š‘ã–žŽŒ‚Åit‚͍ŋ߂͎g‚í‚Č‚Ē‚æ‚Ī‚Å‚·BˆČ‘O‚Íit ‚Ė‘ã‚í‚č‚Éhe‚ðŽg‚Ē‚Ü‚ĩ‚―‚―‚ŠAÅ‹ß‚ĖuŦ·•Ę‚ð‰pŒę‚Đ‚į‚Č‚­‚·v‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪŒXŒü‚Ė’†‚Å‚Í he or she‚Ü‚―‚Íshe or he‚Æ‚·‚é‚æ‚Ī‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gAirplane Fares for Childrenh

 

Children up to two years old are free on domestic flights but not free on international flights. On international flights, children under two are called ginfantsh and children from two to 12 years old are called gchildrenh. Children over 12 years old are treated as an gadulth.

 

On international flights, when an adult accompanying an infant pays a regular fare and lets the infant sit on his or her lap, then the infant pays 10 percent of the regular adult fare. When the infant sits on its own seat, he or she pays 75 percent of the regular adult fare. A child also pays 75 percent of the regular adult fare.

 

’†‹‰–â‘č@‚U‚OuŽq‹Ÿ‚ĖƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Ė\ŋv

 

ŒŧÝAƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Ė\ŋ‚Í‘ål‚Í‚T”N—LŒø‚Đ10”N—LŒø‚Đ‚ð‘I‘ð‰Â”\‚Å‚·‚ŠA–ĒŽ”NŽŌi20Î–Ē–žj‚ĖƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Í‚T”N—LŒø‚Ė‚Ý‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B10”N—LŒø‚Æ—pŽ†‚Š•Ę‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚Å’ˆÓ‚ĩ‚Ä‚­‚ū‚ģ‚ĒB

 

Žš‚Ė‘‚Ŋ‚Č‚Ē”N—î‚ĖŽq‹Ÿ‚Ė–ž‚͐e‚Š‘ã•M‚ĩ‚Ü‚·BƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Ė–ž—“‚Š‚Q’i‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚āA‰š’i‚Ɂh››i•ęj‘ã•Mh‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚æ‚Ī‚ɂŏ‘‚Ŋ‚΂æ‚Ē‚Å‚·B15Î–Ē–ž‚ĖgŒģŠm”F‘—ނ́AŽq‹Ÿ‚ĖŽ–ž‚Ė‹LÚ‚ģ‚ę‚―Œ’N•ÛŒŊØ{–@’č‘㗝l‚ĖgŒģŠm”F‘—ށi—áFŽĐ“ŪŽÔ‰^“]–Æ‹–ØAƒpƒXƒ|[ƒgj‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Timxtomi, 16 February 12j

 

"Passport Application for Minors"

 

Adult can choose a passport of different lengths of validity, either five or ten years. Minors under 20 years of age, however, can apply only for a five-year passport. Accordingly, when you apply for a passport for your children, please be sure to use an application form for a five-year passport. When your children are too young to sign their name, you are requested to sign on their behalf. You write his/her name and on the space provided below the signature give a note like gMother signed of his/her behalfh. For personal identification for your children under 15 years of age, you have to present 1) his/her health insurance card bearing his/her name plus 2) your(parent or guardian) identification bearing a current photograph (e.g. driverfs license or passport).

 

“Yí

 

"Passport Applications1 for Minors"

 

An Aadult can choose a passport with of a different lengths of validity, either five or ten years. A Mminors under 20 years of age, however, can apply only for a five-year passport. Accordingly, when you apply for a passport for your children2, please be sure to use an application form for a five-year passport. When your children is are too young to sign his or her their name, you are requested to sign on their his or her behalf. You write his/ or her name and on the space provided below the signature write give a note like gMother signed of his or /her behalfh. For a3 personal identification for your children under 15 years of age, you have to present 1) his/ or her health insurance card bearing his/ or her name plus 2) your(parent or guardian) identification bearing a current photograph (e.g. a driverfs license or passport).

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

“ā—e‚Ė‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       ‚ą‚ą‚Åan application‚͐\ŋ‘—Þ‚Č‚Ė‚Å•Ą”‚É‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       Žl‚Ían adult‚Æ’P”‚Č‚Ė‚ŁAŽq‹Ÿ‚āa child‚Æ’P”‚ňĩ‚Ī‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       ‚ą‚ą‚Å‚āan identification (paper)‚͐gŒģØ–ū‘—Þ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Passport Applications for Minors"

 

An adult can choose a passport with a different length of validity, either five or ten years. A minor under 20 years of age, however, can apply only for a five-year passport. Accordingly, when you apply for a passport for your child, please be sure to use an application form for a five-year passport. When your child is too young to sign his or her name, you are requested to sign on his or her behalf. You write his or her name and on the space provided below the signature write a note like gMother signed of his or her behalfh. For a personal identification for your child under 15 years of age, you have to present 1) his or her health insurance card bearing his or her name plus 2) your(parent or guardian) identification bearing a current photograph (e.g. a driverfs license or passport).

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚SiKalo, 3 November 10j

 

"Passport Application for Childrenh

 

Applicants can choose a passport valid either for five years or ten years but minors under 20 years old are eligible for a passport valid for five years only. Fill in an application form for a passport valid for five years.

 

Parents sign the childfs application form if their child isnft old enough to write. On the application form, there is a blank space where parents write their childfs name. Below the space, parents write their name.

 

When applying on behalf of their child under the age of 15, parents need to submit their health insurance card which their child name is listed on it and also a document of identifying themselves as a legal representative, such as a driver license and a passport.

 

“Yí

 

"Passport Applications for Childrenh

 

Any person who is 20 years old and over Applicants can apply for choose a passport valid either for five years or ten years but minors under 20 years old can apply are eligible for a passport valid only for five years only. and must use Fill in a different an application form for a passport valid for five years.

 

A Pparents can sign write his/her childfs name the childfs on the childfs application form if their the child isnft old enough to write down his/her name. On the application form, there is a blank space where a parents writes the their childfs name. Below the space, the parents writes his/her their own name and adds a sentence, gI wrote down the childfs name on his/her behalfh1.

 

When applying on behalf of their his/her child under the age of 15, a parents needs to submit his/her their health insurance card which also has the their child name is listed on it and also a document of identifying himself/herself themselves as a legal representative, such as a driverfs license or and a passport.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠAŽš‚Ė‘‚Ŋ‚Č‚ĒŽq‹Ÿ‚ĖƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Ė\ŋ‚É‚Í•ƒ‚Đ•ę‚Ė‚Į‚ŋ‚į‚Đ‚Š‘ã•M‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B‚·‚é‚ƁAhe‚Æshe‚Ė‚Į‚ŋ‚į‚Ėę‡‚ā‚ ‚čA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É–Ę“|‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B“ú–{•ķ‚ɂ́u–@’č‘㗝l‚ĖgŒģŠm”F‘—ށv‚Æ‚ ‚čA•ƒ‚Ü‚―‚Í•ę‚Å‚Č‚­‚Ä‚ā–@’č‘㗝l‚Č‚į‚æ‚Ē‚æ‚Ī‚Å‚·‚ŠA–@’č‘㗝l‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚ð‚Ē‚ę‚é‚Ė‚Æ‚ā‚Á‚Æ–Ę“|‚É‚Č‚é‚Ė‚ŁA–@’č‘㗝l‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚ÍČ‚Ŧ‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

1.       h››i•ęj‘ã•Mh‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ɐā–ū‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ý‚Ü‚ĩ‚―B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Passport Applications for Childrenh

 

Any person who is 20 years old and over can apply for a passport valid either for five years or ten years but minors under 20 years old can apply for a passport valid only for five years. and must use a different application form for a passport valid for five years.

 

A parent can write his/her childfs name on the childfs application form if the child isnft old enough to write down his/her name. On the application form, there is a blank space where a parent writes the childfs name. Below the space, the parent writes his/her own name and adds a sentence, gI wrote down the childfs name on his/her behalfh.

 

When applying on behalf of his/her child under the age of 15, a parent needs to submit his/her health insurance card which also has the child name listed and a document of identifying himself/herself such as a driverfs license or passport.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Ri‚‚Ԃ ‚ņ‚ąA22 November 08j

 

Application for passports of children

 

At present, you can usually choose a passport which is valid for five years or ten years. But if you are not yet of age (younger than twenty years old), you can only apply a passport valid for five years. So you need to be careful not to choose an incorrect application form because a five years form is not same as a ten years one. When your kid is too young to write his/her name, you have to fill the application form on behalf of him/her. The application form has two columns for writing signature. You can write your kidfs name on the upper column and your name on the lower column like g›› (your signature), Mother, by procuration.hWhen you are younger than fifteen years old, for your identity check, you need your insurance card which includes your name as well as a kind of identification which includes the name of a person who is certified as a legal representative (e.g. a driverfs license, a passport).

“Yí

 

Application for pPassports application for your of children1

 

At present, you can usually apply for choose a passport which is valid for either five years or ten years if you are twenty years and older2. But if you are not yet of age (younger than twenty years old), you can only apply for a passport which is valid for five years. So you need have to be careful not to choose an incorrect application3 form because the a five years form is different from not same as the a ten years one.

 

When your kid child is too young to write his/her name, you have to file fill a passport the application form on his/her behalf of him/her. The application form has two columns lines4 for writing a signature. You can write your childfs kidfs name on the upper line column and your name on the lower line column like g›› (your signature), Mother, by procuration. writing for (the name of the child)5.hWhen your child6 is are younger than fifteen years old, for your identity check, you need to present your health insurance card which includes the name of your child name as well as a document that identifies you as a parent or kind of identification which includes the name of a person who is certified as a legal representative (e.g. a driverfs license, a passport).

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚ĖŠT—Š‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA‘ã–žŽŒyou‚ĖŽg‚Ē•û‚É‚í‚Đ‚č“ï‚Ē‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

1.       Application for passports for your of children‚ÆPassport application for your children‚ÆŠr‚Ũ‚é‚ÆŒãŽŌ‚Ípassport application‚ÆŒū‚Ī•Ą‡–žŽŒ‚ŠŽg‚í‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·Bˆę”Ę“I‚ɉpŒę‚Å‚Í–žŽŒ‚Æ–žŽŒ‚ð‚ŧ‚Ė‚Ü‚Ü•Ā‚Ũ‚―•Ą‡–žŽŒ‚ðŒ™‚Ē‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚ĖíŽŊ‚ɏ]‚Ķ‚ΑOŽŌ‚Ė‚Ų‚Ī‚Šˆę”Ę“I‚Č‚Ė‚Å‚·‚ŠA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Ípassport application‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•Ą‡–žŽŒ‚Šˆę”Ę“I‚ÉŽg‚í‚ę‚Ä‚Ē‚é‚Ė‚ŁAŒãŽŌ‚Ė•û‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē•\Œŧ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       ‚ą‚Ė•ķ‚É‚Q‚OÎˆČãAŽŸ‚Ė•ķ‚É‚Q‚OÎ–Ē–ž‚ð“ü‚ę‚đΔ䂷‚é‚Æ‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

3.       be careful not to choose an incorrect one, be careful to choose a correct one‚ðŠr‚Ũ‚é‚ƈę”Ę“I‚ɍm’č•\Œŧ‚ĖŒãŽŌ‚Ė‚Ų‚Ī‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚·B

 

4.       column‚Í—ņ‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įc‚É•Ā‚ņ‚Å‚Ē‚Ü‚·B“ú–{•ķ‚ɉš’i‚Æ‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ʼnĄ‚É•Ā‚ņ‚ūs‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

5.       ‰p•ķ‘—ނŁuJohn Smith‚Ė‘ã‚í‚č‚ɁAMary Green‚Š–ž‚·‚év‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī•\Œŧ‚Í

Mary Green

 

writing for Mr. John Smith

‚Æ‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚ą‚Í“ú–{Œę‚Ė•ķ‘‚ĖŒ`ŽŪ‚Ėā–ū‚Č‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė‚Ü‚Ü‚Ė‰pŒę‚ĖŒ`ŽŪ‚Š‚ ‚Ä‚Í‚Ü‚č‚Ü‚đ‚ņ‚ŠA“ā—e‚ðā–ū‚·‚é‚É‚Í“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ČŒ`‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚â‚·‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

6.       ‚ą‚Ė•ķÍ‚̓pƒXƒ|[ƒg\ŋ‚Ė’ˆÓ‘‚Ŧ‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įA‘Ώۂ͐Žl‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB‘ΏۂĖðŒ‚É‚æ‚Á‚ĈŲ‚Č‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š•K—v‚Č’ˆÓ‘‚Ŧ‚ɂ́AIf you are A, do this. If you are B, do that.‚Æ‚Ē‚ĪŒ`‚Í—Į‚­Žg‚í‚ę‚Ü‚·B‚―‚ū‚ĩ‚ą‚Ė•ķ‚ł͑ΏۂŠ‚P‚TÎ–Ē–ž‚Ėl‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įA“–l‚É‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­‚Ä‚ŧ‚Ėe‚Ü‚―‚Í–@’č‘㗝l‚ɑ΂·‚钍ˆÓ‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB‚ĩ‚―‚Š‚Á‚Äyou‚ð‚P‚TË–Ē–ž‚Ė–{l‚Æ‚·‚é•ķ‚Í‚í‚Đ‚č‚É‚­‚­‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

Passport application for your children

 

At present, you can apply for a passport which is valid for either five years or ten years if you are twenty years and older. But if you are younger than twenty years old, you can only apply for a passport which is valid for five years. So you have to be careful to choose a correct application form because the five years form is different from the ten years one.

 

When your child is too young to write his/her name, you have to file a passport application form on his/her behalf. The application form has two lines for a signature. You can write your childfs name on the upper line and your name on the lower line like g›› (your signature), Mother writing for (the name of the child).hWhen your child is younger than fifteen years old,  you need to present your health insurance card which includes the name of your child as well as a document that identifies you as a parent or legal representative (e.g. a driverfs license, a passport).

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Qi‚ģ‚­‚įA21 August 07j

 

"Child's Application for Passport"

 

When an adult applies for the passport, he/she can choose the passport which is valid for five years or ten years. But a person who is under twenty years old only applies for the five years valid passport. Please be careful to use the appropriate application form which is different from one for ten years valid passport. When a child is too young to sign his/her name, his/her parent could sign on his/her behalf. In that case, please note likeh mother wrote for him/herh on the lower line of the signature space. To identify a person under 15 years old, he/her needs the health insurance card and the legal representativefs identification document like driverfs license or passport.

 

“Yí

 

"Child's Application for Passport"

 

When an adult applies for the his/her passport, he/she can choose a the passport which is valid for five years or ten years. But a person who is under twenty years old only can appliesy only for a the five-year years valid passport. In this case, Pplease be careful to use the appropriate an application form for a five-year passport which is different from one for ten years valid passport2. When a child is too young to sign his/her name, his/her parent could can sign on his/her behalf. In this that case, please write down a note likeh mother wrote signed for on his/her him/herh behalf on the lower line of below the signature3 space. For personal identification for To identify a person under 15 years old, he/her needs to show both his/her the own4 health insurance card and the personal identification of his/her legal representativefs identification such as a document like driverfs license or passport1.

 

1.       ‰p•ķ‚Ė“ā—e‚Ė‚Ų‚Ú‘‚Ä‚Š‚í‚Đ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ŠA­‚ĩ‚í‚Đ‚č“ï‚Ē‚Æ‚ą‚ëi“Yí‰ÓŠj‚Š‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       ‹K‘Ĩ‚Ėā–ū‚Č‚Ė‚ŐģŠm‚ÉŠŽ‚ÂŠČŒ‰‚É•\Œŧ‚·‚é‚Ė‚Š–Ú“I‚Å‚·B‚ą‚ą‚͐ā–ū‚Š’·‚·‚Ž‚Ä‚Đ‚Ķ‚Á‚Ä‚í‚Đ‚č“ï‚­‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚Ü‚·BŠų‚É‚T”N‚Æ‚P‚O”N—LŒø‚ČƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Š‚ ‚é‚ą‚Ƃ͐ā–ū‚ĩ‚Ä‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ŁA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Ía five-year passport‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‚æ‚Ē‚Å‚ĩ‚å‚ĪB

 

3.       write down a note‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

4.       to show both his/her own health care insurance card and ~ ‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æ‚Í‚Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

"Child's Application for Passport"

 

When an adult applies for his/her passport, he/she can choose a passport which is valid for five years or ten years. But a person under twenty years old can apply only for a five-year  passport. In this case, please use an application form for a five-year passport. When a child is too young to sign his/her name, his/her parent can sign on his/her behalf. In this case, please write down a note likeh mother signed on his/herh behalf on the line below the signature. For personal identification for a person under 15 years old, he/her needs to show both his/her own health insurance card and the personal identification of his/her legal representative such as a driverfs license or passport.

 

 

“ĮŽŌ‚Đ‚į‚Ė“Še@‚Pimum, 29 July 03j

 

gApplying for a Passport for a Childh

 

At present, it is possible for an adult to apply for a passport that is good for either five or ten years. But a minor under 20 years old can only apply for a passport that is good for five years. Please be careful that an application form is different from that is good for ten years.

 

When your child cannot write his signature on the passport, you can write his name on his passport on his behalf. There are two lines on the passport where you write his name. On the lower line, you write your name and add, for example, mother, for (the name of your child).

 

For the personal identification for a child, you need the health care insurance card with his name on and the personal identification of a legal representative of the child, for example, yourself, your passport or driverfs license.

 

“Yí

 

gApplying for a Passport for a Childh

 

At present, it is possible for1 an adult to can apply for a passport that is good remains valid2 for either five or ten years,. But but a minor under 20 years old can only apply for a passport that is good remains valid for five years. Please be careful that an application form is different from that is good for ten years.-When you apply for a passport for your children, use an application form for a minor3.

 

When your child cannot is too young to write his signature on the passport, you can write his name on his passport on his behalf. There are two lines on the passport where you write his name. On the upper line, write his name and4 On on the lower line, you write your name and add, for example, mother, for (the name of your child).

 

For the personal identification for a child, you need the his health care insurance card with his name on and the personal identification of a legal representative of the child, for example, yourself, . The personal identification could be5 your passport or driverfs license.

 

ƒRƒƒ“ƒg

 

1.       “Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚·‚é‚Æ•ķ‚ŠŠČ’P‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

2.       is good ‚Å‚āgood‚Å‚·‚ŠAremains valid‚Æ‚·‚é‚Æbetter‚Å‚·B

 

3.       mum‚ģ‚ņ‚Ė“Še‚Ė‚Ü‚Ü‚Å‚ā“ā—e‚Í‚í‚Đ‚é‚ÆŽv‚Ē‚Ü‚·‚ŠA“Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É‚·‚ę‚΂͂Á‚Ŧ‚č‚ĩ‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚ČŽč‘ą‚Ŧ‚ðā–ū‚·‚é•ķÍ‚Í“ĮŽŌ‚Ė—§ę‚É—§‚Á‚āA‚ЂƂ‚ЂƂ‡˜—Į‚­ā–ū‚·‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Š‘åØ‚Å‚·Bu“ĮŽŌ‚ŠŒë‰ð‚·‚é‰Â”\Ŧ‚Š­‚ĩ‚Å‚ā‚ ‚é•ķÍ‚́A“ĮŽŌ‚Š•K‚ļŒë‰ð‚·‚év‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚Ė‚ŠŒī‘Ĩ‚Å‚·B

 

4.       uƒpƒXƒ|[ƒg‚Ė–ž—“‚Š‚Q’i‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚Ē‚āA‰š’i‚Ɂh››i•ęj‘ã•Mh‚Æ‚Ē‚Ī‚æ‚Ī‚ɂŏ‘‚Ŋ‚΂æ‚Ē‚Å‚·Bv‚Å‚·‚Đ‚įAuã’i‚ÉŽq‹Ÿ‚Ė–ž‘O‚ð‘ã•M‚·‚éBv‚Ė‚ū‚ÆŽv‚Ē‚Ü‚·B‚ą‚ę‚ð“ü‚ę‚Ä‚Ļ‚Đ‚Č‚Ē‚Ɛā–ū‚Í’†“r”ž’[‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

5.       “Yí‚Ė‚æ‚Ī‚É“ņ‚‚Ė•ķ‚É•Š‚Ŋ‚Č‚Ē‚Æfor exampleˆČ‰š‚É“ā—e‚ŠžB–†‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

 

“YíŒã‚Ė•ķÍ

 

gApplying for a Passport for a Childh

 

At present, an adult can apply for a passport that remains valid for either five or ten years, but a minor under 20 years old can only apply for a passport that remains valid for five years. When you apply for a passport for your children, use an application form for a minor.

 

When your child is too young to write his signature on the passport, you can write his name on his passport on his behalf. There are two lines on the passport where you write his name. On the upper line, write his name and on the lower line, write your name and add, for example, mother, for (the name of your child).

 

For personal identification for a child, you need his health care insurance card with his name on and the personal identification of a legal representative of the child, for example, yourself. The personal identification could be your passport or driverfs license.