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初級練習問題の添削 13

 

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(25 June 14)


運転中になぜこの道路の制限速度が40キロなのかと思ったことはありませんか。まだ道路が整備されていない頃に決められた制限速度でしょう。あまりのろい制限速度では運転手はかえっていらいらします。

 

読者からの投稿 28(だっち、25 June 14

 

Have you ever had a question about why the speed limit of this road is 40 km/h ? When most roads in Japan were not coordinated, this regulation was probably enacted. If people have to drive by excessive slow speed, drivers are irritated.

 

添削

 

Have you ever had a question about why the speed limit of this road is 40 km/h ? When most roads in Japan were not maintained well coordinated, this speed lime regulation was probably enacted. If people have to drive by excessively slow speed, they2 drivers are irritated.

 

コメント

 

coordinated の意味が分かり難いですが、内容の概略はわかります。

 

1.       既出のthe speed limitを繰り返すほうがわかりやすくなります。

 

2.       文の前半の主語がpeopleなので、ここで新しい主語driversを使うより、peopleを受ける代名詞にしたほうがわかりやすくなります。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever had a question about why the speed limit of this road is 40 km/h ? When most roads in Japan were not maintained well, this speed lime was probably enacted. If people have to drive excessively slow, they are irritated.

 

 

読者からの投稿 27(owl, 17 November 13

 

Did you ever wonder why the speed limit of the road you were passing was 40 kilometers per hour? Probably, those limits were established when roads were not well-developed. I think that too-low speed limits frustrate drivers.

 

添削

 

Did you ever wonder why the speed limit of the road you were driving on passing was only 40 kilometers per hour? Probably, the speed limit was those limits were established when the roads was were not well-developed well. But I think that the too-low speed limits now frustrates drivers.

 

コメント

 

内容のすべてがわかりますが、具体的にこの特定の道路の話にするともっと内容がはっきりします。

 

添削後の文章

 

Did you ever wonder why the speed limit of the road you were driving on was only 40 kilometers per hour? Probably, the speed limit was established when the road was not developed well. But I think that the low speed limit now frustrates drivers.

 

 

読者からの投稿 26(文月、1 September 13

 

Have you ever thought while driving, "Why the speed limit of this road is 40 km/h?" Such speed limit may be determined in the days when the roads were not fully developed. Too low speed limit actually irritates a driver.

 

添削

 

Have you ever thought while driving, "Why is the speed limit of this road is just 40 km/h?" Such a low speed limit may might be determined in the days when the roads were not fully developed. Too low The speed limit so low can actually irritates a driver.

 

コメント

 

内容のすべてがわかります。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever thought while driving, "Why is the speed limit of this road just 40 km/h?" Such a low speed limit might be determined in the days when the roads were not fully developed.  The speed limit so low can actually irritate a driver.

 

 

読者からの投稿 25(sasuke, 28 August 13

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit of this road is 40 kilometers per hour? That could be a speed limit which was determined, when roads were not good. A too slow speed limit irritates drivers.

 

添削

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit of this road is 40 kilometers per hour? That could be a speed limit which was determined, when the1 roads was were not good. The1 A too slow speed limit irritates drivers.

 

コメント

 

内容のすべてがわかります。

 

1.       「現在話題にしている特別な道」にするとわかりやすいでしょう。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit of this road is 40 kilometers per hour? That could be a speed limit which was determined, when the road was not good. The slow speed limit irritates drivers.

 

 

読者からの投稿 24(Valley winds, 5 March 12

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit for this road is 40kph? The speed limit seemed to be determined when the road had been improved well. It is so slow that drivers become more irritated.

 

添削

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit for this road is 40 kilometers per hour kph? The speed limit seemed to have been2 determined when the road had not been improved well yet. But now the speed limit3 It is so slow that drivers become more4 irritated.

 

コメント

 

内容のすべてがわかります。

 

1.       短い文章では(何回もkphが出てくる文章ではないので)省略しないで記述した方が読者に親切です。

 

2.       Seemedの時点より前になるのでhave been determinedとします。ここでは現在完了形は時間を一つ過去にさかのぼる印です。

 

3.       短い文章の中でも代名詞よりもとの名詞を繰り返した方が読者に親切です。

 

4.       More irritated は比較級ですから一般に比較するものが必要です。More irritated than beforeというようにしても良いでしょうが、ここでは単にbecome irritatedでよいでしょう。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit for this road is 40 kilometers per hour ? The speed limit seemed to have been determined when the road had not been improved yet. But now the speed limit is so slow that drivers become irritated.

 

 

読者からの投稿 23(あんこ, 10 March 10

 

While driving a car on the road, have you ever wondered why the traffic rules limits car's speed at 40 km per hour? The rules might have been established before the roads improved. Now that the roads have been well paved. Drivers could be irritated by driving a car too slow.

 

添削

 

While driving a car on the road, have you ever wondered why the traffic rules limits car's speed at 40 km per hour on this road1? The rules might have been established before the roads was2 improved. Now that the roads has have been well paved., Ddrivers could be irritated by driving a car too slowly3.

 

コメント

 

英文の内容の総てがわかります。

 

1.       道路一般のことではなく、ある道路についてのことだとはっきりするとよいでしょう。

 

2.       improveに自動詞もありますが、ここでは他動詞の受動態がよいでしょう。

 

3.       slowを副詞として使うことも多くなっていますが、ここでは本来の副詞形を使うとよいでしょう。

 

添削後の文章

 

While driving a car on the road, have you ever wondered why the traffic rules limits car's speed at 40 km per hour on this road? The rules might have been established before the road was improved. Now that the road has been well paved, drivers could be irritated by driving a car too slowly.

 

 

読者からの投稿 22(Tatsuo, 8 January 10

 

Have you considered a reason why a speed limit of this road is 40kirometers? Probably, it might be enforced before this road was completely kept a good condition. If a speed limit is too low, drivers will irritate.

 

添削

 

Have you ever considered a reason why the a speed limit of this road is 40 kirometers kilometers? Probably, it might be enforced before this road was completely kept in a good condition. However, when If a the1 speed limit is too low, drivers get will irritated.

 

コメント

 

英文の内容の総てがわかります。

 

1.       スピード制限一般のことではなく、この道路のスピード制限のこととすると定冠詞になります。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever considered a reason why the speed limit of this road is 40 kilometers? Probably, it might be enforced before this road was kept in a good condition. However, when  the speed limit is too low, drivers get irritated.

 

 

読者からの投稿 21(riba, 4 January 10

 

Have you wondered why the speed limit for this road is 40 kph? This is because the limit was laid down when this road was not developed. The limit is so slow that drivers may get irritated.

 

添削

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit for this road is 40 kilometers per hour1 kph? This is because the limit was laid down when this road was not developed well yet. But now the road is in good conditions2, but Tthe limit is so slow that drivers may get irritated.

 

コメント

 

英文の内容の総てがわかります。

 

1.       短い文章なので、省略形を使って単語数を減少する必要はありません。

 

2.       このような補足説明があると内容がわかりやすくなるでしょう。日本文には無くても英文の内容を完結するために必要な補足を入れてください。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit for this road is 40 kilometers per hour? This is because the limit was laid down when this road was not developed well yet. But now the road is in good conditions, but the limit is so slow that drivers may get irritated.

 

 

読者からの投稿 20(mxtomi, 4 July 09

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit on this road is only 40 km/h, while you are driving?  I guess the speed limit was introduced when the road was not yet improved and maintained well.  A speed limit, when set too low, often irritates drivers.

 

添削

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit on this road is only 40 kilometers per hour km/h, 1while you are driving?  2I guess the speed limit was introduced when the road was not yet improved and maintained well.  A speed limit, when set too low, often irritates drivers.

 

コメント

 

内容の総てがわかります。

 

1.       Plain Englishでは省略表記法は使わないのがよいでしょう。同じ表現がたくさん文章に出てくるときは、40 kilometers per hour (km/h)のように最初に省略表記法を説明して、二回目からは省略表記法を用います。

 

2.       文と文を二つのスペースで区切っていますが、一般的には一つのスペースです。この投稿にも一つのスペースで区切ってください。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit on this road is only 40 kilometers per hour  while you are driving? I guess the speed limit was introduced when the road was not yet improved and maintained well. A speed limit, when set too low, often irritates drivers.

 

 

読者からの投稿 19(P&C, 27 June 08

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit is 40 km/h on this road in your driving ? This limit probably was determined in the days when the conditions of roads were worse than now. Too slow limit makes drivers get nervous.

 

添削

 

Have you ever thought wondered why the speed limit is 40 km/h on this road in while your are driving ? This speed limit was probably was determined in the days when the conditions of the roads1 was were much worse than now. When the speed Too slow limit is too low, it will makes drivers rather get nervous2.

 

コメント

 

英文の内容のほぼ総てがわかりますが、下記のコメントのところがわかり難いです。

 

1.       この道路のスピード制限の話で、道路一般ではないとおもいます。

 

2.       A slow speed limit makes drivers nervous. A speed limit that is too slow makes drivers rather nervous.という表現ができますが、投稿のようには表現しません。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit is 40 km/h on this road while you are driving ? This speed limit was probably determined in the days when the conditions of the road was  much worse than now. When the speed limit is too low, it will make drivers rather nervous.

 

 

読者からの投稿 18(kk, 28 January 08

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit of this road is set as forty kilometers per hour during your driving? It seems that this speed limit was decided when the road had not yet been paved. When speed limit is too slow, drivers find themselves rather irritated.

 

添削

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit of this road is set so slow as forty kilometers per hour during while you are1 your driving? It seems that this speed limit was decided when the road had not yet been paved. When speed limit is too slow, drivers find themselves are2 rather irritated.

 

コメント

 

内容の総てがわかります。

 

1.       文の前半が口語調ですからここもそれに合わせるとよいでしょう。

 

2.       簡単な表現でよいでしょう。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit of this road is set so slow as forty kilometers per hour while you are driving? It seems that this speed limit was decided when the road had not yet been paved. When speed limit is too slow, drivers are rather irritated.

 

 

読者からの投稿 17(dunkel, 28 October 07

 

Have you ever thought why the regulation speed of the road is 40 kilometers an hour when you drive a car? I think it was decided when the condition of the road was bad. Drivers get mad because the regulation speed is too much slow.

 

添削

 

Have you ever thought why the regulation speed of the road is 40 kilometers an hour when you drive a car? I think it was decided when the condition of the road was bad. Now the road conditions is much better. So, Ddrivers get mad irritated because the regulation speed is too much slow.

 

コメント

 

英文の内容の総てがわかります。添削のような説明を加えると文脈がはっきりします。

 

Have you ever thought why the regulation speed of the road is 40 kilometers an hour when you drive a car? I think it was decided when the condition of the road was bad. Now the road conditions is much better. So, drivers get irritated because the regulation speed is too slow.

 

 

読者からの投稿 16(マーチャン、24 August 07

 

Did you ever think about why the speed limit on this road was 40 kilometers per hour while driving on the road? This speed limit must have been decided in the period when the road was not in a good condition yet. Now the road condition is much better and drivers are rather irritated by driving at the slow speed.

 

添削

 

Did you ever think about why the speed limit on this road was 40 kilometers per hour while driving on the road? This speed limit must have been decided in the period when the road was not in a good condition yet. Now that2 the road condition is much better, and drivers are rather irritated by driving at the slow speed1.

 

コメント

 

1.       英文の内容の総てがわかります。

 

2.       投稿のままでよいですが、添削のようにすると因果関係を入れて内容を明確にできるでしょう。

 

添削後の文章

 

Did you ever think about why the speed limit on this road was 40 kilometers per hour while driving on the road? This speed limit must have been decided in the period when the road was not in a good condition yet. Now that the road condition is much better, drivers are rather irritated by driving at the slow speed.

 

 

読者からの投稿 15(散歩人、11 April 07

 

Is what you think why the limiting speed of this road is 40 kilos in driving ? I wonder the limit was established when this road had not been prepared. The slower the limit speed, the more irritant would be the drivers.

 

添削

 

Is what Did you ever think why the limiting speed limit on of this road is was 40 kilosmeters an hour while you were in driving1 ? I wonder the limit was established when this road had not been well prepared. The slower the limit speed limit, the more irritant irritated would be the drivers2.

 

コメント

 

1.       「運転中になぜこの道路の制限速度が40キロなのかと思ったことはありませんか。」は次の三つの小文に分解できます。「今まで〜だと思ったことがありますか?」、「どうしてこの道路のスピードリミットが時速40キロなのか?」、「あなたが運転ををしている。」Did you ever think ~? Why is the speed limit on this road 40 kilometers an hour? You are driving.そしてこの三つをつなげると添削のようになります。

 

2.       The more ~, the more.の構文を使っていますね。この添削講座では英文の五つの基本文型を小文分割の基礎にしていますが、この五つのほかにも英文でよく使われる文型がいくつもあります。これらの文型を覚えて増やしていけば、英作文が楽になってきます。

 

添削後の文章

 

Did you ever think why the speed limit on this road was 40 kilometers an hour while you were driving? I wonder the limit was established when this road had not been well prepared. The slower the speed limit, the more irritated would be the drivers.

 

 

読者からの投稿 14(吉、22 November 06

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit for this road is 40 kilometers while driving. Probably at the time this speed limit was established, this road had not been build yet. Extremely lower speed rather irritates drivers.

 

添削

 

While driving1, Hhave you ever thought why the speed limit for this road is 40 kilometers while driving?. Probably at the timewhen this speed limit was established, this road had not was not maintained well2 been build yet. Since the road is in good conditions now3, the slow speed limit Extremely lower speed can rather irritates drivers.

 

コメント

 

ここに置いたほうが文末に置くより読みやすくなります。

 

道路はあったのでしょうが、まだよく整備されていなかった、としたほうがよいでしょう。

 

日本文にはありませんが、このような補足説明がないと文章の意味がはっきりしません。日本文では、このようたことを読者が推測すると仮定してあるのでしょうが、英文では明示して書く必要があります。

 

添削後の文章

 

While driving, have you ever thought why the speed limit for this road is 40 kilometers? Probably when this speed limit was established, this road was not maintained well yet. Since the road is in good conditions now, the slow speed limit can rather irritate drivers.

 

 

読者からの投稿 13(岩ちゃん、4 November 06

 

Did you think about why the limiting speed of this road was 40 kilometers per hour while driving? This speed must have been decided in the period when the roads were not arranged yet. Drivers are further irritated at the speed too slow.

 

添削

 

Did you ever1 think about why the limiting speed limit on of this road was 40 kilometers per hour while driving on the road? This speed limit must have been decided2 in the period when the roads was3 were not arranged in a good condition yet. Now the road condition is much better4 and Ddrivers are rather further irritated by driving at the slow speed too slow.

 

コメント

 

1.       everをいれると「いままでに一回でも〜」と意味が強くなります。

 

2.       the speed limit must have been decided ~という現在完了形がここでは適切ですね。

 

3.       ある特別な道路のスピード制限について言っている、と解釈すると文章がわかりやすくなります。

 

4.       この添削のような説明が日本文には無いのですが、これを入れて置かないと最後の文の意味がよくわからなくなります。日本文は読者がわかっていることを想定して内容を省略することがあります。英文では省略されている内容を補足します。

 

添削後の文章

 

Did you ever think about why the speed limit on this road was 40 kilometers per hour while driving on the road? This speed limit must have been decided in the period when the road was not in a good condition yet. Now the road condition is much better and drivers are rather  irritated by driving at the slow speed .

 

 

読者からの投稿 12(moppy, 11 October 06

 

While driving, have you ever thought the reason why the speed limit on this road is forty kilometers? It seems that the speed limit was established when the road had not been maintained yet. However, too slow speed limit give drivers irritation after all.

 

添削

 

While driving, have you ever thought the reason why the speed limit on this road is forty kilometers? It seems that the speed limit was established when the road had not been well maintained yet. However, now the too slow speed limit1 on the good road2 gives drivers irritation after all.

 

コメント

 

1.       a speed limit that is too slow for the roadtoo slow a speed limit for the roadと短く表現できますが、the slow speed limit on the good roadとするほうが簡明でしょう。

 

2.       日本文には明示して書いてありませんが、「整備された道路では」をいれると内容がはっきりします。この特別な道路が現在は整備されているので」というように補足説明するには、now that the road is in good conditions, the slow speed limit ~とするとよいでしょう。

 

添削後の文章

 

While driving, have you ever thought the reason why the speed limit on this road is forty kilometers? It seems that the speed limit was established when the road had not been well maintained yet. However, now the slow speed limit on the good road gives drivers irritation after all.

 

 

読者からの投稿 11(だっち、5 September 06

 

Have you ever thought of the reason why the speed limit in the roads was 40 kilometers ?  the limit might be decided when the roads were not still prepared. If the speed limit is too slow, drivers are irritated.

 

添削

 

Have you ever thought of the reason why the speed limit in for the roads1 was 40 kilometers an hour ?  tThe speed limit might be was probably decided when the roads were was not still yet prepared for any speed faster than 40 kilometers2.  The road condition has much improved now.2 So, Iif the speed limit is too slow, drivers are irritated and may not drive carefully2.

 

コメント

 

1.       多分、ある特定の道路についての感想文でしょうから、the roadとします。

 

2.       これらは日本文には直接書いてはないのですが、英文では具体性が無いと内容がわかり難くなるので補足説明を入れます。どのような補足説明が必要かを決めるのは難しいですが、日本文の内容を論理的に説明するには、日本文に書かれたことだけで十分か検討します。もし十分でなければ補足説明を入れます。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever thought of the reason why the speed limit for the road was 40 kilometers an hour ? The speed limit was probably decided when the road was not yet prepared for any speed faster than 40 kilometers. The road condition has much improved now. So, if the speed limit is too slow, drivers are irritated and may not drive carefully.

 

 

読者からの投稿 10(ピンクのくじら、3 July 06

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit on this road was 40 km/hr, while you were driving? The speed limit was provably determined when the roads were not still put in good conditions. Drivers tend to be rather irritated by such a low speed limit.

 

添削

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit on this road was 40 km/hr kilometers per hour1 while you were driving? The speed limit was provably determined when the roads were was2 not still put in good conditions yet. But now3, Ddrivers tend to be rather irritated by such a low speed limit4.

 

コメント

 

1.       計測量の表現の簡略形はどの程度文章で使うか、は文章の出ている場所(新聞、雑誌、報告書、論文、専門誌)などで異なります。この添削講座では、数字がたくさん出てくるときのほかは簡略表現を使わないで元の表現で記述する練習をしてください。

 

2.       「この特別な道路」で統一したほうがわかりやすいでしょう。

 

3.       前の文とのつながりをつける表現を1つ入れるとよいでしょう。tend to be rather irritated はわかりやすい表現ですね。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever thought why the speed limit on this road was 40  kilometers per hour1 while you were driving? The speed limit was provably determined when the road was2 not put in good conditions yet. But now3, drivers tend to be rather irritated by such a low speed limit4.

 

 

読者からの投稿 9(バリコ、21 March 06

 

Have you ever wondered if the speed limit of this road should be 40 kilometers per hour while driving? The limit must have been imposed before this road was developed enough.  A speed limit usually gets the drivers irritated as long as it is set too low.

 

添削

 

Have you ever wondered, while driving1, if why the speed limit of this road should be 40 kilometers per hour while driving? The limit must have been imposed before this road was developed enough2. A Such a slow3 speed limit usually gets the drivers irritated as long as it is set too low.

 

コメント

 

1.       「運転中に」というのは大切な情報ですが、文のどこに入れたらよいか迷いますね。文の前方の方が、この情報が早く読者に伝わるのでよいでしょう。この情報をもっと強調するには、文を言い直して、While driving at an unreasonably low speed of 40 kilometers per hour, have you ever wondered why the speed limit was so low?と表現することもできます。

 

2.       must have been imposedという表現が適切ですね。

 

3.       Such a slow speed limitと形容詞を入れた主語にすると文が簡単になります。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered, while driving, why the speed limit of this road should be 40 kilometers per hour? The limit must have been imposed before this road was developed. Such a slow speed limit usually gets the drivers irritated.

 

 

読者からの投稿 8(tange, 24 February 06

 

Have you ever wondered that why the speed restriction on this road is 40 kilometers per hour? It might be the rule before roads were improved. However, at the present time, too much slow speed restriction is more danger because it irritates drivers.

 

添削

 

Have you ever wondered that why the speed restriction limit on this road is 40 kilometers per hour? It might have been a be the proper speed limit rule before roads were improved1. However, at the present time, too much slow a speed restriction limit that is too slow for the road2 is more rather3 dangerous because it irritates drivers.

 

コメント

 

1.       投稿のままでもよいですが、添削のようにすると「道路が整備される前には、適切なスピード制限だったかもしれない。」ということが強調されます。

 

2.       スピード制限一般が低すぎる、というのではなく、ある道路ではスピード制限が昔のままで低すぎる、ということを明確にするには、添削のようにするとよいでしょう。

 

3.       more dangerous than ? と比較の対象が必要になるので、ここではrather dangerous 「(安全を高めるというより)むしろ危険になる」とするとよいでしょう。私はこの20年ほどは、カナダで無事故、無違反で運転していますが、日本で運転しようとは夢にも思いません。交通事情がまるきり違います。運転というのは、運転動作の技術はごく一部で、主に道路事情、運転の社会習慣、社会事情一般の知識に依るようですね。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit on this road is 40 kilometers per hour? It might have been a proper speed limit before roads were improved. However, at the present time, a speed limit that is too slow for the road is rather dangerous because it irritates drivers.

 

 

読者からの投稿 7(rikarika, 8 Aug 05

 

Have you ever felt why this way’s speed limit was only 40Km. It would be decided when roads were before constructed. Too slaw speed limit would irritate drivers rather than keep there safe.

 

添削

 

Have you ever felt wondered1 why this way’s road’s speed limit was only 40 Kmkilometers2 ?. It The speed limit3 would bewas decided when the roads4 were was not well before constructed. Too slaw A speed limit too slow would will5 irritate drivers and make their driving unsafe6 rather than keep there them safe.

 

コメント

 

1.       whyという質問形が続くので、wonder, questionなどがよいでしょう。

 

2.       英文では省略表現は使わないほうが良いでしょう(キロがたくさん出てくるときは最初のときにkilometer (Km)というように書いて、2回目からはKmにするとよいです)。

 

3.       短い文章ですが、前の文にいろいろな名詞が出てくるので、読者の混乱を避けるために代名詞を使わずに元の名詞を使います。

 

4.       遅すぎるスピード制限はいろいろな道路に当てはまるでしょうが、内容を具体的にするためにこの道路のスピード制限にします。

 

5.       これからも起こりうることなのでwouldではなくwillにします。

 

6.       この文の後半にkeep them safeとあるので前半部分もこれに対応してmake their driving unsafeという補足を入れたほうが良いでしょう。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why this road’s speed limit was only 40 kilometers? The speed limit was decided when the road was not well constructed. A speed limit too slow will irritate drivers and make their driving unsafe rather than keep them safe.

 

 

読者からの投稿 6(Kappa2005, 8 July 05

 

Have you ever felt why the speed limit of this road is 40 kilometer per hour during your driving? That speed limit was set when the road was not well-furnished yet. Drivers will have rather stress on too much slow driving limit.

 

添削

 

Have you ever felt why the speed limit of this road is 40 kilometer per hour during your driving drive1? That speed limit was set when the road was not paved well -furnished yet. Now2 Ddrivers will have rather feel stressed with such a on too much slow driving limit.

 

1.       during your driveまたはwhile you are drivingが自然に感じます。

 

2.       前の文からの連絡にnowを入れると「昔は〜だったが、今は〜だ。」となるので文章の流れが良くなります。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever felt why the speed limit of this road is 40 kilometer per hour during your  drive? That speed limit was set when the road was not paved well yet. Now drivers will rather feel stressed with such a slow driving limit.

 

 

読者からの投稿 5(かっぱん、11 April 05

 

You may have wondered why the speed limit is 40 kilometers per hour. The limit may have been set at the time when roads were not maintained well yet. However drivers may get irritated when they are forced to drive too slowly.

 

添削

 

Driving on certain roads1, Yyou may have wondered why the speed limit is 40 kilometers per hour. The limit may have been set at the time when roads were not maintained well yet. Nowadays2, Hhowever drivers may get irritated when they are forced to drive too slowly.

 

コメント

 

1.       日本の時速制限の事情には疎いですが、40キロの時速制限はある種の道路だけですか。補足説明をいれておきました。カナダではそれぞれの州によって時速制限は異なりますが、私のすんでいるアルバータ州では高速道路は100キロと110キロがあります。市街地の幹線道路は70キロ、一般道路は60キロ、住宅地は40キロです。速度違反の罰金は10キロオーバーで1万円ぐらいです。私は車のほとんど走っていない高速道路で20キロの速度違反を警察の軽飛行機で観測され2万円ほどの罰金を払った経験があります。

 

2.       これを入れると内容の対比がはっきりします。

 

添削後の文章

 

Driving on certain roads, you may have wondered why the speed limit is 40 kilometers per hour. The limit may have been set at the time when roads were not maintained well yet. Nowadays, however drivers may get irritated when they are forced to drive too slowly.

 

 

読者からの投稿 4(マウント60、27 June 04

 

Have you ever not questioned the speed limit of 40 kilometers while driving on the road?  The limit must have been set before the road was paved. Too slow a speed irritates drivers after all.

 

添削

Have you ever not questioned the validity of1 the speed limit of 40 kilometers while driving on the road? The This speed limit must have been set before the road was paved. Too slow a speed Driving too slow can2 irritates drivers after all.

 

1.       レトリカルな質問はHave you ever questioned~, Have not you ever questioned~ Did you ever wonder~ Did not you ever wonder~などと表現できますが、ここでは簡単にHave you ever questioned~にしました。the validity of~をいれて意味をはっきりさせました。

 

2.       添削のほうが簡単な表現だとおもいます。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever questioned the validity of the speed limit of 40 kilometers while driving on the road? This speed limit must have been set before the road was paved. Driving too slow can irritate drivers after all.

 

 

読者からの投稿 3 (tama, 19 Feb 04)

 

Have you ever thought why the limiting speed for this road is 40km/hour while driving? I guess it had been decided when roads were not maintained yet. Driving too slow by the limiting speed rather irritate drivers.

 

添削

 

Have you ever thought wondered1 why the limiting speed limit2 for this road is set at 40 kilometers an hour km/hour3 while you were4 driving? I guess it the speed limit had been was5 decided when roads the road was were not maintained well yet. But now6, Ddriving too slow by the limitin according to such a g speed can7 rather irritate drivers.

 

コメント

 

たくさん添削をしましたが、tamaさんの投稿の英文は簡略でスムースに読めます。スムースに読める、ということは英文が英文の基本型に従って書かれている、ということで大切なことです。添削は内容をより正確に表現するようにしてあります。

 

1.       Have you ever thought why ~は「〜がなぜなのかその理由を考えたことがありますか」という意味合いになります。Have you ever wondered why ~とすると「なぜ〜か不思議に思ったことがありますか」という感じになります。ここでは少し軽くwonderとすると良いでしょう。Collins COBUILDwonderを次のように説明しています。If you wonder about something, you think about it, either because it interests you and you want to know more about it, or because you are worried or suspicious about it.

 

2.       Speed limitと通常、表現します。日本語でもスピード・リミットというので、紛らわしいですね。日本語になっている英語が、はたして英語圏で同じ意味を持っているかを調べるのはとても面倒です。私が学生の頃、タイプライターでコピーを作成するのに使う紙(手動タイプの時代の話で、2枚の紙の間にこの紙を挟んで一度に2部印刷します)を日本語でカーボンといっていました。カナダの文房具屋にカーボンを買いに行きました。さて、日本語ではカーボンだけど、英語ではなんと言うのだろうと熟慮し、Would you give me a couple of carbonated paper?と言いました。店員の答えはBeg your pardon? でした。Carbonated drinkというと、炭酸の入ったブクブクト泡のでる飲み物ですね。いったいcarbonated paperとはどんなものでしょう?正解は“Would you give me a couple of carbon paper?”でした。このような面白い(今から思えば)経験はたくさんあります。カナダに来てから長い間(5年ぐらい)コーヒーを注文するとコカコーラで出てくる、という不思議なことが続きました。ある時など、友達と一緒にコーヒーショップで英語は難しいといってこの話をしてからコーヒーを注文すると、またまたコカコーラがきました。摩訶不思議な現象です。どうやらこの原因は次のようだとわかりました。I would like to have a cup of coffee.と私が言うと、日本語のコーヒーが頭にある私がcoffeeと発音すると、coffeeの正確な発音のカーヒーではなく、コーヒーとカナダ人に聞こえるようです。店員はコーヒーのコーのところだけを聞き取って(アクセントがコーのところにありますね)コーク(coke コカコーラの略称)と思ってコカコーラを持ってきます。

 

3.       このような短い文章では略称は使わずに40 kilometers an hourとしたほうが良いです。長い文で何回もkilometers an hour が出てくるときは、最初に出てくるときに40 kilometers an hour (km/hour)と説明してから、2回目からは60 km/hourと略称で使うことが出来ます。

 

4.       while drivingでも良いのですが、この文は比較的長く、声に出して読んでみると、最後のwhile drivingがおまけの付けたしといった感じで、尻切れトンボの印象になります。文頭に持ってきてWhile driving, have you ever ~とするか添削のようにします。このような従属節は短くしたくなりますが、プレイン・イングリッシュでは、内容の正確さと読みやすさを優先するので、省略せずに完全な文の従属節にするのが原則です。このことについてはホームページの「英語で書く基本が身につく本の補足」の中の「小文と小文のつなぎ方」を参照してください。

 

5.       It (the speed limit) had been decided when roads were not maintained yet.では過去完了は「過去形で示される過去のある時点より前の出来事を述べる」ので「道路がまだ整備されていなかった時」となって内容がわかりにくくなります。The speed limit had been decided before roads started getting kept in good shape.とするかThe speed limit was decided when roads were not well maintained yet.とすると内容がはっきりします。

 

6.       前の文とのつながりを良くするために、このような接続詞や副詞を入れると良いでしょう。

 

7.       Canはこのような時に使うと、「〜することがある」という意味になります。Driving too slow を主語にしたのは上手な表現法ですね。

 

添削後の文章

 

Have you ever wondered why the speed limit for this road is set at 40 kilometers an hour while you were driving? I guess the speed limit was decided when the road was not maintained well yet. But now, driving too slow according to such a speed can rather irritate drivers.

 

 

読者からの投稿 2(tonton, 20 Feb 03

 

When you are driving, have you ever wondered, "Why is the speed limit on this road only 40 kilos?" That must be a speed limit which was decided long time ago when the road wasn't yet fixed. Such a low speed limit makes drivers irritated instead.

 

添削

 

When you are driving, have you ever wondered, "Why is the speed limit on this road only 40 kilos kilometers an hour1?" That This2 must have been a the speed limit which was decided a long time ago when the road wasn't yet fixed in good condition. But now Ssuch a slow speed limit can3 makes drivers irritated instead.

 

コメント

 

1.       Kilokilometer, kilograms, kiloliterなどの略で、ここでは文脈からkilometerとわかりますが、kilometerと略さずに書いた方が良いでしょう。

 

2.       前の文のスピードリミットのことを指しているので、「それ」thatといいたくなりますが、「(この文を書いた人が)ここで話題にしているスピードリミット」ということでthisのほうが一般的です。

 

3.       運転手を主語にしないでスピードリミットを主語にするのが英語の発想ですね。このcanは「遅いスピードリミットは運転手をいらいらさせることができる。」というよりは「遅いスピードリミットは運転手をいらいらさせることがある。」という感じになります。次の用例も同じです。

He is my good friend. But when we talk business, he can be very tough.(彼は私の良い友達だが、仕事の話をするときはとても厳しくなることがある。)

 

添削後の文章

 

When you are driving, have you ever wondered, "Why is the speed limit on this road only 40 kilometers an hour?" This must have been the speed limit decided a long time ago when the road wasn't yet in good condition. But now such a slow speed limit can make drivers irritated instead.

 

 

読者からの投稿 1(プリムローズ、20 Dec 02

 

While driving a car, did you ever wonder why the speed limit was set at 40 kilometers an hour? The 40 kilometer speed limit was perhaps set when the road condition was bad. But now the road is kept in good condition. A driver can get irritated when he is forced to drive so slowly.

 

While driving a car, did you ever wonderhave you ever wondered why the speed limit was set at 40 kilometers an hour? The 40 kilometer40-kilometer speed limit was perhaps probably set when the road conditions was were bad. But now the road is kept in good condition. A driver can get irritated when he is forced to drive so slowly.Now that roads are kept in good condition a 40-kilometer speed limit is irritating.

 

添削

 

While driving a car, did have 1you ever wondered why the speed limit was set at 40 kilometers an hour? The 40 kilometer speed limit was perhaps probably set when the road conditions was were bad. But now that2 the roads is are kept in good condition. A a driver can get irritated when he is forced to drive so slowly3.

 

コメント

 

1.       Did you ever wonder~は「いままで一度でも〜と不思議に思ったことがありますか?」という感じになり、Have you ever wondered~では「今まで何回か〜と不思議に思ったことがありますか?」という感じになります。

 

2.       Perhapsよりprobablyの方が(ともに不確実な度合いを表す表現ですが)確実性が高くなります。ここでは道路事情が速度制限と関連していたことはかなり確かだと仮定してprobablyにしました。

 

3.       Now that+A, B. で(Aとなった今では、またはAとなってしまったので)、Bである、という文型になります。

 

例:

 

その場の興奮から離れた今となってみると、どうして昨日の会合であんなに攻撃的に振舞ったか説明するのも弁護するのも難しい。

I find it difficult, now that I am removed from the excitement of the moment, to explain or defend why I behaved so aggressively at the meeting yesterday.

 

私のフアンは皆どこにるのだ。フアンの助けを必要とする今になってどこにいるのだ。

Where are all my fans?  Where are they now that I need help?

 

しかし、フランクが行かれないという事になって、私が行くべきだと決心した。

But now that Frank couldn't go, I decided I should.

 

添削後の文章

 

While driving a car, have you ever wondered why the speed limit was set at 40 kilometers an hour? The 40kilometer speed limit was probably set when road conditions were bad. But now that the roads are kept in good condition a driver can get irritated when he is forced to drive so slowly.