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4 事実を話す

 

上の会話の英作文の方法を使った会話の例題を見てみましょう。いろいろな状況の会話があるのでどのような例を取るか迷いますが、まずは事柄の説明をする例を取り上げます。英作文の練習問題を例にして、その内容を会話で表現します。すでに練習問題の添削例がこのホームページに載っているので、文章の英語と会話の英語を較べることができます。会話をする人は、英会話初心者のMakoto(男性名ですが、英語には女言葉というものは特に無いので、ご了承ください。)と英語を母語とする友人Georgeという想定です。Georgeは主に相づちを打つだけの役割です。会話の始まりの挨拶などは省略します。

 

例題 1(初級練習問題 1)

 

米国人は過去半世紀、太り続け、いまや大人の三人に一人は肥満である。ブッシュ米大統領は「一日三十分運動しよう」と国民に呼びかけている。

 

英作文

 

The American people have been gaining more and more weight over the last half century. At present one out of three Americans is overweight. President Bush is appealing to people, "Let us exercise for thirty minutes every day."

 

英会話

 

Makoto: “Do you know that Americans are fat?”

 

George: “Really?”

 

Makoto: “Yes, one out of three Americans is overweight. They have gained weight over the last fifty years.”

 

George: “Oh, they eat too much. They should do more exercises.”

 

Makoto: “I think so. President Bush tells Americans do exercise for thirty minutes every day.”

 

George: “Makes sense. By the way, do you exercise everyday, Makoto?”

 

上の会話ではMakotoは会話の主要なところを最初に言って、あとから補足説明をしています。このようにすると、相手の注意を引き、また何をこれから話すか、相手にわかるので会話が明瞭になります。”Do you know that ~?”というように主題を質問形にするのも(相手がこのことを知っているかどうかを聞いているのではなく)相手の注意を引く方法です。

 

例題 2(初級練習問題 2)

 

松井選手が米大リーグへ移籍する意向を表明した11月1日の午前、日本テレビ株が値下がりした。人気選手の移籍でテレビ視聴率が落ちるといった懸念が出たようだ。

 

英作文

 

On the morning of November 11, the price of Japan TV's stock went down suddenly when Matsui, a popular Japanese baseball player, announced his intention to move to an American major league team. This is cause of concern because Japan TV might lose many viewers of its popular baseball programs.

 

英会話

 

Makoto: “George, Matsui is moving to the Major League!1

 

George: “Yes, I’ve heard it yesterday.”

 

Makoto: “Japan TV’s stock price has started falling down already.”

 

George: “Why?”

 

Makoto: “Because Japan TV broadcasts Giants’ games. Matsui leaves the Giants. Then, people don’t watch Giants’ games. So, Japan TV loses sponsors2.”

 

George: “I see. Can we still watch Matsui playing in Major League games on TV?”

 

Makoto: “I wish so. But I don’t know.”

 

1.       Makotoは「松井選手が米大リーグへ移籍する意向を表明した」という内容を”Matsui is moving to the Major League.”と簡単に言っています。会話では後で補足説明が出来るので、このような簡単な言いかたが出来ます。

 

2.       小文を並べた簡単な説明ですが、論理的で内容がわかりますね。Makotoの会話が上達すれば、”Because Japan TV receives a large amount of revenues from broadcasting Giants’ games. When Matsui leaves the Giants, less people may watch Giants’ games on TV and his means that Japan TV loses some sponsors and revenues.”というように会話の流れが良いように小文を連結できるでしょう。

 

例題 3(初級練習問題 4)

 

銀行のキャッシュカードの暗証番号は0000から9999までの一万しかありません。ですから複数の人が同じ暗証番号を使っています。しかし、暗証番号と口座番号の組み合わせは一つしかありません。

 

英作文

 

There are only 10,000 numbers from 0000 to 9999 that are available for the secret identification codes of bank debit cards. Therefore, a number of people are using the same secret identification code. But each of them has a unique combination for the secret identification code and the bank account number.

 

英会話

 

Makoto: “Do you have a bank credit card, George?”

 

George: “Yes, I do.”

 

Makoto: “Then, do you know that somebody else has the same password as yours?”

 

George: “No, but it can’t be. My password must be unique!”

 

Makoto: “No, your password is not unique. Your bank can use only 10,000 numbers for

passwords. They are numbers from 0000 to 9999. But the bank has more than 10,000 customers. So, the bank must use the same number for several customers. But the combination of your bank account and your password is unique1.

 

George: “Phew! I was worried for a moment.

 

1.       小文が並んでいますが、but, so で小文の間のつながりが良くなっていますね。会話では話すことの内容を順々に相手に理解してもらうために、小文を使うと効果的です。文が長くなると内容がわかり難くなります。but, so などを小文と小文の間に入れることで、小文につながりが出来て、聞き手に聞きやすくなります。

 

例題 4(初級練習問題 21)

 

デパートの多くがことしは二日から店を開けた。スーパーマーケットは元日も休まず営業をするところが珍しくなくなった。しかし、新聞の投書欄に「お正月なのに子どもたちと家でゆっくり過ごす時間がなくなった」と、激しい商戦を嘆く、スーパーで働くパートタイマーのお母さんからの声が載っていた。

 

英作文

 

Many department stores started to open on January 2nd this year. As for supermarkets, opening on the New Year’s Day has become not unusual. But I found a a letter to a newspaper by a mother working part-time at a supermarket. Because of the hard sales offensive, she has lost the time to spend with her children even on the New Year's Day.

 

 

英会話

 

George: “A happy New Year, Makoto.”

 

Makoto: “A happy New Year, George.”

 

George: What are you up to?”

 

Makoto: “I am going to a department store for shopping.”

 

George: “This is still January the second. Are they already open?”

 

Makoto: “Yes they are. Most department store open on January the second nowadays. Supermarkets open yesterday, on the New Year’s Day.”

 

George: “Yah? Competition must be very tough. But how about people working in these stores? Don’t they take any holidays?”

 

Makoto: “Apparently not1. The other day, I read a letter to the editor in a newspaper…that was sent by a housewife2. She works part-time at a supermarket…that is open on the New Year’s Day3. She complained she could not spend time with her children even on the New Year’s Day…because she had to work on that day4.

 

George: “Oh, that’s tough.”

 

Makotoの英会話もだんだん上達してきました。副詞の挿入句や関係詞を使って会話とつなげられるようになりました

 

1.       “Apparently (they are) not (taking holidays).”は単に”They are not.”というより会話に気持ちが入りますね。

 

2.       “I read a letter to the editor in a newspaper.”と言ったあとで、”that was sent by a housewife.”と付け足しています。この後に”…who works part-time at a supermarket.” と続けることもできますが、いったん話を切って、”She works part-time at a supermarket.”としたほうがwhoが誰を指すか明確になります。

 

3.       “She works part-time at a supermarket.といってから、”that is open on the New Year’s Day”と付け足して補足説明しています。

 

4.       “…because ~.”はおまけの駄目押し情報ですね。

 

例題 5(初級練習問題 25)

 

佐倉署は1月14日、窃盗の疑いで、市内に住む男を逮捕した。警察によると、男は妻には船橋市内の看板屋に勤めていると偽り、毎朝七時に「出勤」。主婦が買い物に出掛けて留守になる午後一時−同四時の間に空き巣に入り、午後七時には帰宅する生活を送っていた。

 

英作文

 

On January 14, the Sakura Police Station arrested a man living in Sakura on suspicion of theft. According to the police, the man lied to his wife by telling her that he worked for a sign- making store in Funabashi. Every day he left home at seven o’clock in the morning, broke into houses between one and four in the afternoon when housewives went shopping, and came home by seven o’clock in the evening.

 

英会話

 

George: “Anything new today, Makoto?”

 

Makoto: “Yes, I can tell you an interesting story.”

 

George: “That’s good. What about?”

 

Makoto: “It’s about a very diligent burglar.”

 

George: “A diligent burglar? That’s interesting. By the way, you’ve got to be studying English diligently.”

 

Makoto: “Yes, but how can you tell it?”

 

George: “Because, now you are using big words like diligent.”

 

Makoto: “Oh, come on. I have known these words. I haven’t used them in our conversations. Because I wasn’t sure if you could understand them.”

 

George: “O.K. You won. Please tell me the story.”

 

Makoto: “The Sakura Police Station arrested a man on January 14. The police suspected that1 he was a burglar. The man lived in Sakura City. He told his wife that he had a job at a sign-making store in Funabashi City. Every day, he left home at seven in the morning and came home at seven in the evening. But in fact, he was breaking into houses between one o’clock and four o’clock in the afternoon. Why this time?2 Because3 this was the time when most housewives went shopping and their homes were empty.

 

George: “A very reliable person. Too bad he didn’t apply his diligence to other professions.”

 

1.       The police suspected that        ~. He told his wife that ~. のようにthat節を使うと、The police suspectedといった後でthat節の中身を考える時間が出来ます。この形も会話でよく使われます。

 

2.       自問自答は相手の注意を引く会話の技術です。

 

3.       会話では前の事柄の説明に、becauseで始めることがよくあります。

 

英作文と較べるとわかりますが、同じ内容を相手に伝えるときでも、会話では文が短くなりますね。短い文でも文と文のつながりを工夫すると(上の例では、Every day, But in fact, Why this time?, Becauseなど)会話が自然に流れる感じになります。

 

 

例題 6(初級練習問題 30)

 

小児科をなくす病院がふえている。厚生労働省の調べによると、小児科がある病院は、1990年の4,119から2000年には3,474に減少した。子どもの数が少なくなったこと、小児科医者がたりないことが主な原因である。

 

英作文

 

An increasing number of hospitals are closing their pediatric wards1. According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the number of hospitals with a pediatric ward decreased from 4,119 in 1990 to 3,474 in 20002. The major reasons are a decreasing number of children and a shortage of pediatricians.

 

英会話

 

Makoto: “George, are you familiar with hospitals?”

 

George: “Not really, but why?”

 

Makoto: “Do you know what a pediatric ward is?”

 

George: “Yes. Isn’t it a special ward for sick children?”

 

Makoto: “Yes. Then, did you know that more and more hospitals are closing their pediatric wards?”

 

George: “No, I did not know it. Why are they doing that?”

 

Makoto: “There are two reasons: First, the number of children is decreasing in Japan. Second, there is a shortage of pediatricians1. According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the number of hospitals with a pediatric ward decreased from, let me see my note, 4,119 in 1990 to 3,474 in 2000.”

 

George: “I see. It seems to me that the number of pediatricians decrease when the number of children decrease. Is there any problem for this?”

 

Makoto: “Yes, there is. For example, Children are everywhere in Japan. But in some areas, there is no pediatrician at all.”

 

1.       幾つかの要因を挙げるときには、このような形で内容を整理すると話しやすく、また聞き手が理解しやすくなります。First, second, thirdなどは、話の内容が混乱しそうなときに内容を整理するのに便利です。考える時間稼ぎにもなります。